24 November 2015

Dispensationalism—an overview



A1 Defined

B1 Bible Interpretation--the plain, normal sense consistently.

B2 Groups

C1 Jew--literal DNA descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob

C2 Gentile--everyone other than literal DNA descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob

C3 Church--those, Jew or Gentile, who believe and put their trust into Jesus Christ. Romans 1:17-18, John 3:36, Philippians 3:9, 1 Corinthians 15:3-4

B2 Dispensation--A period of time in which God reveals certain specific truths, then He tests the people to see if they will obey. This has nothing to do with saving grace or earning salvation. It is simply showing mankind that no matter what the situation, law, or environment, people will always rebel, disbelieve, and sin. Salvation, the Gospel, has been, is, and always will be the same. It is in believing God. It is through faith in God. Salvation has been, is, and always will be by grace. The importance of a dispensation is the test to show mankind that no matter what, people choose to sin. Sin has been dealt with by the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross and His resurrection. God has a purpose which He is going to fulfill. And He uses a progression of truths to build upon the truths already given.

B3 Dispensationalism--a system of interpreting the Bible consistently. It seeks to understand the different time periods recorded in the Bible.

B4 Messiah's coming--His physical appearance on earth and seen by many.

B5 Resurrection--a permanent rising from death.

B6 Judgment--facing the Lawgiver, who is the judge. He will judge all people and all angels.

B7 Law--things we must do or must not do. God is the lawgiver.

B8 Grace--receiving what we don't deserve. Romans 3:24, Romans 4:4, Romans 5:15, etc.

B9 Salvation--a deliverance from the penalty of spiritual death. The penalty was paid in full. Jesus died on the cross.

B10 Rewards--God gives rewards to the saints based on their faithfulness. These are rewarded at the Judgment Seat of Christ.

B11 Believers--those who have faith, believe, and trust in Jesus. This is the Jesus of the Bible in its plain, normal sense.

B12 False converts--these are those who say they believe but do not live (or even want to live it) the Christian life as it is taught in the New Testament.

B13 Covenants--an agreement based on God's promise. It is not conditional. It never ends.

A2 Explained

B1 Dispensationalism

C1 Normal

D1 An administrative period or type of administration

D2 God's type of administration in different periods of time

D3 Three main points

E1 Bible interpretation is in the plain, normal sense.

F1 Prophecy

G1 This is done to be consistent.

G2 This is because the prophecies about Messiah were fulfilled literally.

G3 Since the prophecies about Messiah were fulfilled literally, the prophecies about the second coming and actions of Messiah will also be fulfilled literally.

F2 Non-prophetic passages.

E2 Israel and the church are not the same.

E3 The Millennium is a literal period of 1,000 years.

E4 The main theme of Scripture for humans is the glory of God. Covenant theology understands the main theme to be the salvation of humans. See the Moody Handbook of Theology by Paul P Enns for the topic of dispensationalism.

D4 God gives each period of history (dispensation) a certain amount of revelation, certain required duties (regulations), the need to believe Him, a test from God to see if they obey, humans fail the test, judgment, and then advances to the next dispensation.

C2 Ultra/hyper dispensationalism

D1 Most of New Testament is not applicable to the Church.

D2 Some have the beginning of the church in mid-Acts or even at Romans 1

D3 The Book of Acts is a writing about the Jewish church. The epistles of Hebrews, James, Peter, John, and Jude were written to this Jewish church.

D4 Basically the only applicable epistles are the one that the Apostle Paul wrote.

D5 This Jewish church will be re-established in the Millennium.

D6 Water baptism and the Lord's Supper are for this Jewish church and not the church of Christ's body.

B2 Seven dispensations

C1 View One

D1 The dispensations

E1 Innocence (Genesis 1:1—3:7) Adam and Eve had not sinned, rebelled, or broken any of God's laws in thoughts, desires, words, and deeds.

E2 Conscience (Genesis 3:8—8:22) People had in their heart what is right and wrong. Romans 2:12-15

E3 Human Government (Genesis 9:1—11:32) Had leaders who would obey and enforce God's rules.

E4 Promise (Patriarchal) (Genesis 12:1—Exodus 19:25) Knowing that a time of blessing and forgiveness was coming. Despite the promise people still sinned.

E5 Law (Exodus 20:1—Acts 2:4) What God wants people to do and not do. A written standard of right and wrong.

E6 Grace (Acts 2:4—Revelation 20:3) Faith and trust into Jesus Christ.

E7 Millennial Kingdom (Revelation 20:4–6) Jesus rules as King of the World.

D2 The pattern

E1 Responsibility

E2 Failure

E3 Judgment

E4 Grace

E5 Moves on to next dispensation

B2 Messiah's Coming--comings or advent are defined as public appearances. Messiah made many appearances but most were private to one or a handful. His post resurrection appearance was not public but was seen by over 500 people. 1 Corinthians 15:6

C1 Two comings

D1 These are official appearances of Jesus Christ on earth where He is publicly seen.

D2 Other appearances would not be considered "comings" in this sense. Examples would be God talking with Adam and Eve, Enoch walking with God, Noah, Abraham, Moses, the prophets and prophetesses, and many others.

C2 First advent--This is the history recorded in the Gospels. It lasted about 33 years.

C3 Second advent--This is the time He reigns in Jerusalem over the whole earth for 1,000 years. It is mentioned in latter part of Revelation and some of the Old Testament prophets. Acts 1:9-11, Matthew 24:30, Matthew 25:31, John 14:3, Revelation 1:7, etc.

C4 Most understand that the second coming is in two phases. The first phase is the rapture for His saints. The second is His coming to earth with His saints

C5 The rapture

D1 True and will happen. 1 Thessalonians 4:17

D2 Differences between rapture and Second Coming of Christ. Below are a few. This is only a partial list.

RaptureSecond Coming
For the saints 2 Thessalonians 2:1-3, Hebrews 9:28, 1 Thessalonians 4:14With the saints Jude 1:14
Secret 1 Corinthians 15:50-54, 1 Thessalonians 5:2Seen by all Revelation 1:7, Matthew 24:29-30
In air 1 Thessalonians 4:17To earth Zechariah 14:4
Without any notice or warning 1 Corinthians 15:50-54Many signs point to it 2 Thessalonians 2:4, Matthew 24:15-30

D3 Types

E1 Pretribulational (References: here,

F1 Pro

G1 Believers are not to face God's fierce anger. 1 Thessalonians 1:9-10, 1 Thessalonians 5:1-9, Romans 5:9, Revelation 3:10

G2 The rapture will happen without any warning. It is imminent. Matthew 24:42-44, Matthew 25:13, Mark 13:33, Philippians 4:5, Titus 2:12-13, James 5:8-9, 1 Peter 4:7

G3 The whole tribulation is a time of God's wrath. Revelation 6:16-17, Revelation 14:19, Revelation 15:1, Revelation 16:1

G4 The whole world is involved and receiving God's wrath during the tribulation. Isaiah 24:1-6, Revelation 13:17 (no one will be able to buy or sell, so the whole world will be involved). But God does not want us to suffer His wrath. 1 Thessalonians 5:9

G5 The idea of imminence is very important. We are to be prepared and ready for the bridegroom who may come at any time. For a good description of imminence see here. 1 Corinthians 1:7 (eagerly waiting for the Lord Jesus), Philippians 3:20, Philippians 4:5, 1 Thessalonians 1:10, Titus 2:13, Hebrews 9:28, James 5:7-9, Jude 1:21, Revelation 3:11

F2 Con--I can't think of any. See below for other views arguments.

E2 Midtribulational

F1 Pro

G1 The first 3.5 years of the tribulation are not the wrath of God. It is only the last 3.5 years reveal the wrath of God.

G2 The seal and trumpet judgments come from humanity. Only the bowl judgments come from God.

G3 The trumpet of 1 Corinthians 15:52 is the same as the trumpet in Revelation 11:15.

G4 It seems to be an argument from philosophy rather than from Scripture.

F2 Con

G1 The whole tribulation period reveals and experiences God's wrath, not just the last 3.5 years.

G2 Christians are to be delivered from wrath. 1 Thessalonians 5:9-10

G3 Just because trumpets are mentioned doesn't mean that the trumpets mentioned above are the same.

G4 Most likely the last trumpet is mentioned in Matthew 24:31 is last. It is at the very end of the tribulation and after the 7 bowl judgments.

G5 The trumpets sounding in Revelation are related to judgment. The trumpet in 1 Corinthians 15:52 is the trumpet for resurrection.

E3 Posttribulational

F1 Pro

G1 The differing views here deal with a mix-up of the church with Israel, a nonliteral tribulation, missing the idea of the imminent return of Jesus. They all believe that the church goes through the tribulation.

G2 Matthew 24:29-31. This passage teaches

H1 Jesus returning and ALL see Him.

H2 This happens at the end of the tribulation.

H3 Angels gather the elect. Because the word elect is used, they take out of context and proof text Romans 11:7 to imply that the word elect cannot refer to Israel. But Isaiah 45:4, 2 Samuel 21:6 (King Saul was chosen/elect), 1 Chronicles 16:3, Psalms 105:43, and many other places.

F2 Con

G1 Mixing the church with Israel, not interpreting the Bible in its plain, normal sense, and not knowing the Bible teaches the imminent return of Jesus.

G2 Romans 11:7, the election, is the Jewish believers. The context is clear that there were before Messiah was born of the virgin Israelites who were believers and had faith. Those who did not were hardened.

G3 Romans 11:28, the election, is Israel.

G4 The Tribulation is a time of punishment for the world and for Israel. God's purpose for Israel at that time is for them to repent. Joel 3:12, Zechariah 14:2, Jeremiah 30:7, Daniel 12:1, Zephaniah 1:16, Revelation 6:16-17, etc.

E4 Prewrath

F1 Pro--this is somewhat similar to the mid-tribulation rapture. They teach that only the bowl judgments are the wrath of God.

F2 Con

G1 The whole tribulation period reveals and experiences God's wrath, not just the last 7 judgments (the seven golden bowls--Revelation 15).

G2 The rapture is seen as being as any time (imminent).

E5 Partial--only those who are worthy because of prayer, Christian living, and faithfulness will be raptured. The rest will have to go through the tribulation.

F1 Pro

G1 2 Timothy 4:8. It is interpreted that only those who love His coming will be raptured. (Problem--They are adding to the words of the passage. This verse is not speaking about who will and who will not be raptured. It simply states that those who love His appearing will receive a crown--the crown of righteousness).

G2 Hebrews 9:28. The words "...to those who eagerly await Him" have been interpreted to mean some will and some will not be raptured. The same problem of interpretation in 2 Timothy 4:8 is also used here. These who hold to this view simply read between the lines something that is not stated in the passage. I would understand the passage in its plain, normal sense and context to be stating that those who eagerly wait for His coming are those who believe the Gospel. All die (Hebrews 9:27) and are judged, but those who eagerly await His coming (believers) will be saved.

F2 Con

G1 Doesn't interpret the Bible in its plain, normal sense

G2 Is a type of protestant purgatory

G3 The cross of Jesus was not good enough for the believer. They must also do something to obtain a better salvation.

G4 Romans 5:1 teaches we are justified by faith and have peace with God. Colossians 2:13

G5 1 Corinthians 12:12-13 states that the body of Christ (the believers) are one body, not a divided body.

B3 Resurrections Acts 24:14-15.

C1 All humans will have a resurrection. Daniel 12:1-2, John 5:28, 1 Corinthians 15:22, Acts 24:15

C1 The blessed

D1 This is for believers who had died before the Rapture.

D2 It happens at the Rapture. This is called the First Resurrection. 1 Thessalonians 4:14-18, 1 Corinthians 15:22-23, John 5:29.

D3 The tribulation believers are raised before the Millennium. These believers are the ones killed by the antiChrist. Revelation 20:4.

D4 Thus the blessed resurrection is two phrase, but it is for believers only.

D5 Chronologically this is before the Judgment Seat of Christ (the bema judgment). This is for believers who will be judged and receive rewards.

C2 The cursed

D1 This is for unbelievers.

D2 It happens at the end of the Millennium.

D3 This happens just before the Great White Throne Judgment (the judgment time for unbelievers only). Revelation 20:5, John 5:29, Daniel 12:1-2

C3 Some hold to the view that Israelites will be raised at a later time (the end of the millennium). Daniel 12:1-2

C4 The resurrection of Jesus Christ. 1 Corinthians 15:4

D1 The was prophesied. Psalms 16:10, Isaiah 53:9-11,

D2 After resurrection, He was seen by over many people including one time over 500 people. 1 Corinthians 15:3-8

D3 Called the first fruits. 1 Corinthians 15:20-23

B4 Judgments

C1 It is true. Psalms 96:13, Acts 17:31, Hebrews 9:27

C2 The judge is Jesus Christ. John 5:22-23, John 5:27, 2 Timothy 4:1, Acts 17:31, etc.

C3 The judgments

D1 Regarding believers--this is Jesus dying, paying the penalty for sins. Jesus's death is for all (unlimited atonement) but applied only to those who believe. 1 Peter 2:24, 1 Peter 3:18, Galatians 3:13, 2 Corinthians 5:21, Hebrews 9:26, Hebrews 1:3, Romans 8:1

D2 Regarding believers who sin--this is chastisement of believers. 1 Corinthians 11:31-32, Hebrews 12:7

D3 Judgment Seat of Christ

E1 This is for believers only. 1 Corinthians 3:10-17, Romans 14:10-12, 2 Corinthians 5:9-10

E2 This is for rewards or no rewards of how we lived in our life on earth.

E3 The five crowns--Life (James 1:12, Revelation 2:10), glory (1 Peter 5:24), rejoicing (1 Thessalonians 2:19-20, Philippians 4:1), righteousness (2 Timothy 4:8), incorruptible (1 Corinthians 9:25-27)

E4 It is NOT to judge sin but to determine rewards.

E5 Takes place in heaven.

E6 It is after the rapture.

D4 Great White Throne Judgment Revelation 20:11-15

E1 This is for the unsaved only.

E2 The unsaved are resurrected.

E3 It happens on earth.

E4 It happens at the end of the Millennium.

E5 The resurrection of believers has already happened.

F1 The saints at the rapture. 1 Thessalonians 4:17, etc.

F2 The tribulation saints at the end of the Tribulation. Revelation 20:1-5

D5 Separation of sheep and goats Matthew 25:31-46

E1 Also called the Judgment of the Nations.

E2 Deals with the judgment of the gentile nations just after the end of the Tribulation.

E3 It happens at Jerusalem on earth.

E4 Messiah examines how they treated "My brethren," which is probably Israel.

E5 The saved gentiles go into the Millennium.

E6 The unsaved go to Hades.

D6 Of Israel Ezekiel 20:33-44 and Psalms 50:16-22

E1 Just after the end of the Tribulation

E2 In Israel

E3 The saved of Israel (Jews) will enter the Millennium.

D7 Regarding angels. 1 Corinthians 6:3, Jude 1:6, 2 Peter 2:4

B5 Difference between law and grace

C1 Law

D1 This is understood as Mosaic law especially as seen in the summary commonly called the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20).

D2 This law was required. Deuteronomy 10:12, Luke 10:27-18. (However no one can obey the law perfectly, except for the Savior, Jesus).

D3 It was not designed to make people right with God. Galatians 3:24-25

D4 It was for a nation--Israel. Romans 9:4

D5 Salvation was still by faith. Habakkuk 2:4, Deuteronomy 21:8-9 (one had to believe, which was proved when they looked).

D6 Was to show humanity that no one is righteous and no one can obey God's laws perfectly in thoughts, desires, words, and deeds.

C2 Grace

D1 Nothing we can do.

D2 Salvation is by grace alone through faith alone in Jesus Christ alone.

D3 God gives something that someone does not deserve. It is free and undeserved. Romans 4:4-5 (a gift is not given because we earned it), Ephesians 1:7 (we do not deserve redemption or forgiveness), 2 Thessalonians 2:16 (we do not deserve, nor have we earned, eternal hope and comfort), 1 Peter 1:10 (we have not earned, nor deserved, salvation. It is a gift).

B6 Difference between the believer's standing and state

C1 Standing--this is salvation. 1 Corinthians 6:11, Romans 3:26, Romans 8:33, 1 Peter 1:18-19, 2 Corinthians 5:17

C2 State--this is the current situation as we live our Christian life. Romans 8:5-6, 1 John 3:4, Galatians 5:16-26

B7 Difference between salvation and rewards

C1 Salvation--this is passing from death to life, having no forgiveness to forgiveness, not reconciled to reconciled.

C2 Rewards--has nothing to do with being saved. These are given in response to how we lived our lives after we became Christians.

B8 Difference between believers and professors

C1 Believers--those with a true heart change. 2 Corinthians 5:17, James 2:14-26

C2 Professors--those who say they are believers, but their lives show otherwise. Matthew 7:20-23, Matthew 12:33-35, Matthew 23:25-28

B9 Seven covenants

C1 Covenant defined

D1 An agreement between two parties. It is a very formal, legal agreement.

D2 Types

E1 Conditional--the only conditional covenant is the Mosaic covenant. The Scriptures state, "Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice, and keep my covenant, then you shall be my own possession from among all peoples; for all the earth is mine; and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation.' These are the words which you shall speak to the children of Israel." (Exodus 19:5-6, WEB)

E2 Unconditional--all the other seven. No conditions, just promises given by God.

C2 Adamic Genesis 3:14-19

D1 Adam and Eve had sinned.

D2 God passes judgment and sentence on the serpent, Adam, Eve, and all creation.

D3 God gives an unconditional promise of a coming redeemer, a savior, a descendant of Eve (Adam is not mentioned). This is singular.

D4 This redeemer will destroy the serpent, even though the serpent will injure the descendant.

D5 This has been mostly fulfilled. Galatians 4:4. Complete fulfillment when all the works of the devil and sin are destroyed is still future at the end of the Millennium and just beyond it.

D6 Jesus was tempted by the devil, (Matthew 4:1-10), but Jesus did not sin.

D7 The reason Jesus came was to destroy the works of the devil. 1 John 3:8

D8 The complete fulfilling of the covenant does not depend on us or anything we do or do not do. God has promised and will do it.

C3 Noahic Genesis 8:20-9:27

D1 God had destroyed every living thing that breathed air except for what was on the ark.

D2 God now gives an unconditional covenant to never destroy every living thing again. Genesis 8:21

D3 Seasons were established and never will end. Genesis 8:22

D4 There is also the relationship between God and Shem. Genesis 9:26

D5 Japheth was to be enlarged. Genesis 9:27

D6 Canaan was to be the servant of servants (Genesis 9:25). This was fulfilled when Joshua conquered the land (Joshua 23:1, Psalms 44:1-3).

C4 Abrahamic Genesis 13:4-18, Genesis 15:1-21, Genesis 17:4-8, Genesis 22:15-24, Genesis 26:1-5, Genesis 28:10-15

D1 The establishment of the nation of Israel.

D2 The ownership of that land in the Middle East that God promised.

D3 This covenant is unconditional. It has and will happen. Psalms 105:8-11

D4 There was the promised seed, descendant. This is singular, not plural, and it refers to Messiah--Jesus. Galatians 3:16

C5 Mosaic Exodus 19:5-8, Exodus 19:25

D1 This is the only one that is conditional. Do it and live. Luke 10:28

D2 The summary of this covenant is the Ten Commandments. Exodus 20:1-17, Hebrews 9:1-7

D3 The reason that this is conditional is found in Galatians 3:19-29. It is to show all humanity that we are not good enough for heaven and fellowship with God. Romans 3:19 and Romans 7:7-13

D4 Jesus fulfilled this law perfectly (Matthew 5:17) and was sinless (Hebrews 4:15, 1 John 3:5, 1 Peter 2:22-24).

D5 Yet Jesus died, being sinless, because He was the sacrificial lamb. He became sin in our place (Romans 5:8, 2 Corinthians 5:21,

C6 Palestinian Deuteronomy 30:1-20

D1 The nation of Israel will be scattered. Deuteronomy 30:1 This happened because they sinned and God gave Israel the curses as they knew He would. (Deuteronomy 27)

D2 The repentance and return of Israel to worshiping God. Deuteronomy 30:2

D3 The regathering of Israel to its land. Deuteronomy 30:3-5

D4 Israel converted 2 Corinthians 5:17, Deuteronomy 30:6, Ezekiel 36:25

D5 God judges Israel's enemies Deuteronomy 30:7

D6 God's blessing on the repentant Israel. Deuteronomy 30:9

C7 Davidic 2 Samuel 7:8-17

D1 David would have a son who would sit on the throne of Israel and reign forever.

D2 This descendant would be God and man. Isaiah 7:14 and Isaiah 9:6-7

D3 The reality of this wonderful reign is peace in the universe. Isaiah 11:6-9

D4 This son has been born Luke 1:31-33

D5 Part of this is still future Acts 3:20-23

C7 New Hebrews 8:6-10:39. Read Hebrews 8:6-13

D1 This starts at Pentecost. Acts 2:1

D2 Israel can be part of it and will. Jeremiah 31:31-34

D3 The sacrificial death of Messiah is the base of this covenant. Matthew 26:28

D4 Is composed of believers in Messiah Jesus. Ephesians 2:11-15

B Summary, as I understand it.

C1 The Bible is to be interpreted in its plain, normal sense.

C2 Israel and the Church are separate.

C3 There is a true, literal 1,000 year reign of Messiah, Jesus, in the future

C4 The Gospel is always the same.

C5 The difference between law and grace

C6 The difference between the Old Testament and New Testament

C7 God is different periods in history had different situations to extinguish all complaints of people who were falsely accuse God of being unjust in punishment.

D1 Everything was perfect when Adam and Eve were created. They needed to believe. Proof of their faith would be tested. They failed when they disobeyed God. God judged them by a curse on the land and their relationship to God and each other.

D2 The first descendants of Adam and Eve, up to the flood, still had weather, etc. and understanding, but still failed. God judged them by the flood.

D3 So it happened after the flood, then there was failure.

D4 Then with Israel being chosen and the Law given. Failure happened again.

D5 In this day of grace, people have preached a false gospel much too often, which will also result in failure and judgment.

D6 So it will happen in the Tribulation and the Millennium.

A3 Resources


B2 The following accurate and helpful statement has been formulated by the men of the New England Bible Conference and is entitled "A Clarification Regarding Dispensationalism."

When God's Word, the Bible, is taken in a consistent, literal manner it will result in dispensationalism. Dispensationalism is the result of a consistently literal, normal interpretation.

A dispensation is a unique stage in the outworking of God's program in time, whereby some or all of mankind are to have a believing response, being responsible to be good stewards of the particular revelation which God has given (Eph. 3:2,9; Col. 1:25; Exodus 34:27,28; Gal. 3:10–12; 1 Tim. 1:4; Eph. 1:10; etc.).

We believe that in order to be "rightly dividing the Word of truth" it is essential to distinguish things that differ and to recognize certain basic Biblical distinctions, such as the difference between God's program for Israel and God's program for the Church (Acts 15:14–17; Rom. 11:25–27), the separation of 1000 years between the two resurrections (Rev. 20:4–6), the difference between the various judgments which occur at various times (2 Cor. 5:10; Matt. 25:31–46; Rev. 20:11–15), the difference between law and grace (John 1:17; Rom. 6:14–15; Rom. 7:1–6) and the difference between Christ's present session at the right hand of the Father as the Church's great high Priest and Christ's future session on the restored Davidic throne as Israel's millennial King (Heb. 1:3; 10:12–13; Acts 15:16; Luke 1:32).

We believe the Church is a distinct body of believers which was not present on earth during the Old Testament period and which was not the subject of Old Testament prophecy (Eph. 3:1–9; Col. 1:25–27). In accord with God's program and timetable, the Church is on earth between the two advents of Christ with the beginning of the Church taking place after Daniel's 69th week (on the Day of Pentecost, Acts 2) and with the completion of the Church's ministry on earth taking place at the rapture before the commencement of Daniel's 70th week (Dan. 9:24–27). During this interval of time God is visiting the nations to call out a people for His Name (Acts 15:14–16; Eph. 3:1–11; Rom. 11:25). Indeed, the Church is God's called–out assembly.

We believe God will literally fulfill His covenant and kingdom promises to the nation of Israel just as the prophets foretold (Gen. 12:2–3; 15:18–21; Deut. 30:3–10; 2 Sam. 7:4–17; Jer. 31:31–37; 33:15–26). We believe that the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant (Gen. 12,15, 17), the Palestinian Covenant (Deut. 30), the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam. 7) and the New Covenant (Jer. 31) were made unconditionally to national Israel and that the thousand–year kingdom will include the literal fulfillment of these covenant promises to ethnic Israel (Jer. 31:31–37; 33:14–26; Ezek. 36:25–28; 40–48; Rom. 11:23–32). The church is not the "new Israel" or the "spiritual Israel," but rather "one new man" created of two groups, saved Jews and saved Gentiles (Eph. 2:15; 1 Cor. 10:32). The terms "Israel," "Israelite," and "Jew," are used in the New Testament to refer to national ethnic Israel. The term "Israel" is used of the nation or the people as a whole or the believing remnant within. It is not used of the Church in general or of Gentile believers in particular. Saved Gentiles of this present age are spiritual sons of Abraham who is the father of all who believe (Rom. 4:12,16; Gal. 3:7,26,29), whether Jews or Gentiles; but believing Gentiles are not Israelites [that is, they are not the sons of Jacob]. The Israelites are carefully defined by Paul in Rom. 9:4–5.

We believe that in every dispensation God's distinctive programs are outworked for His great Name's sake and that in every dispensation persons have always been saved by grace through faith (Eph. 2:8; Gen. 15:6; Heb. 11:4–7; Rom. 4:1–8). We believe that the glory of God is the determining principle and overall purpose for God's dealings with men in every age and that in every dispensation God is manifesting Himself to men and to angels so that all might redound to the praise of His glory (Eph. 1:6,12,14; 3:21; Rom. 11:33–36; 16:27; Isa. 43:7; 1 Tim. 1:17).


B3 The Seven Covenants

B4 The Moody Handbook on Theology by Paul P. Enns and many others.

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