Theme: The Church is born
Scripture: Acts 2:1-47
B1 Pentecost and the filling by the Holy Spirit Acts 2:1-13
C1 The filling by the Holy Spirit Acts 2:1-4
C2 The response of the populace Acts 2:5-13
B2 Peter's sermon Acts 2:14-36
C1 Peter explains what the speaking in languages is about Acts 2:14-21
C2 Peter tells them about Jesus's death and resurrection Acts 2:22-28
C3 Peter explains the prophetic verses of Scripture that he quoted. Acts 2:29-35
C4 Peter's summary Acts 2:36
B3 People's response to his sermon Acts 2:37-41
B4 Fellowship of first Christians Acts 2:42-47
A2 Notes and questions
B1 Acts 2:1
C1 What is Pentecost?
E1 PENTECOST, n. [Gr. fiftieth.]
1. A solemn festival of the Jews, so called because celebrated on the fiftieth day after the sixteenth of Nisan, which was the second day of the passover. It was called the feast of weeks, because it was celebrated seven weeks after the passover. It was instituted to oblige the people to repair to the temple of the Lord, there to acknowledge his absolute dominion over the country, and offer him the first fruits of their harvest; also that they might call to mind and give thanks to God for the law which he had given them at Sinai on the fiftieth day from their departure from Egypt.
2. Whitsuntide, a solemn feast of the church, held in commemoration of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles. Acts 2.
Webster Dictionary 1828
E2 For further and more complete information see PENTECOST.
E3 Three purposes
F1 The giving of the Law (50 days after leaving Egypt).
F2 Celebrate God's blessings of the harvest.
F3 All Hebrew men were to appear before the Lord.
D2 Encyclopedia--here is the article in ISBE on Pentecost.
C2 What is the significance of this?
D1 In the Old Testament. When the Holy Spirit came upon someone, it was for a particular service, deed, duty, responsibility, etc.
E1 King as in Saul in 1 Samuel 11:6 and David 1 Samuel 16:3
E2 Priest as in Aaron in Leviticus 8:12
E3 Artisan as in Exodus 28:3
E4 Judge as in Othniel in Judges 3:10
E5 Leaders as in Joshua Deuteronomy 34:9
E6 Messiah as in the only one who was, is, and always will be Messiah Jesus Isaiah 11:2 and John 1:32-33 and John 3:34
D2 In the New Testament. The Holy Spirit comes upon/into every true believer in Jesus Christ. Romans 8:9, 1 Corinthians 3:16, 2 Corinthians 6:16, Ephesians 1:13, etc.
E1 For service Galatians 5:22-23 and 1 Peter 2:5
E2 For obedience as in 1 Peter 1:2
E3 For worship as in Philippians 3:3
E4 For encouragement as in Romans 14:17
E5 For conviction as in John 16:7-8
E6 For wisdom as in Ephesians 1:17
E7 For comfort as in Acts 9:31
E8 For witness as in John 15:26
E9 To teach us as in 1 John 2:27
B2 Acts 2:1-13
C1 How many believers were gathered together? (All and according to Acts 1:15, there were 120 people).
C2 What was unusual about this sound? (It came into the room).
C3 Why wind? (It was a sound like wind, probably not wind). See Ezekiel 37:9-14, Acts 17:25, and John 3:5-8. Barnes notes in his commentary on this verse: "It may be remarked here, that this miracle was really far more striking than the common supposition makes it to have been. A tempest might have been terrific. A mighty wind might have alarmed them. But there would have been nothing unusual or remarkable in it. Such things often occurred; and the thoughts would have been directed of course to the storm as an ordinary, though perhaps alarming occurrence. But when all was still--when there was no storm, no wind, no rain, no thunder, such a rushing sound must have arrested their attention; and directed all minds to so unusual and unaccountable an occurrence."
C4 What was seen after the sound of the wind? (Tongues of fire; possibly came down from heaven as one shaft of pulsating, glowing light then divided to be on each believer. The light would be similar to a softly, flickering candle flame).
C5 The King James Version has the word "tongues" in Acts 2:4. This word is for the physical tongue (Mark 7:33) or languages (Acts 2:11, Acts 10:46 (they heard as in understand)), not unknown languages.
C6 How does Isaiah 28:11 apply to Acts 2:4 (quoted in the New Testament in 1 Corinthians 14:21)?
C7 Why were all these "devout" men in Jerusalem? (Pentecost was one of three feasts that Yahweh required all men to come).
C8 What were some of the description of the crowd who heard them speak in their own languages? (confused, Acts 2:6; amazed and marveled, Acts 2:7; and perplexed, Acts 2:12).
C9 How many languages would have been heard--Acts 2:9-11? (at least 15).
C10 Why would some mock them with the words, "They are full of new wine?"
C11 Is the church a building, an organization, or believers? (Believers, which would include all from Acts 2 up to today and beyond to the Rapture).
C12 What was the effect on the church (believers)? (Boldness to preach Jesus, His Gospel, and His resurrection).
B3 Acts 2:14-36
C1 What is different about the preaching and message of Peter compared to the typical preacher of today? (He told them they were sinners, Acts 2:23. Peter preached to them the life, death, and resurrection of the Lord Jesus).
C2 How does God give us strength to tell the Gospel today?
C3 In Peter's quote from Joel (Joel 2:28-32) were all the prophecies fulfilled on that day? (No, some and the full completeness of fulfillment are for Israel in the future).
C4 What are the two elements of prophecy? (One is predictive, that is, speaks of future events, and the other is present and speaks of rebuke of sins, command to repent and believe God).
C5 In Acts 2:21 what does it mean to "call of the name of the Lord?" (It means to ask for forgiveness of sins and to place ourselves under His authority. Compare baptism in 1 Corinthians 10:2 "into Moses." They were under his authority and under the authority of Yahweh.
D1 Clarke in his commentary on 1 Corinthians 10:2--And were all baptized unto Moses] Rather INTO Moses-into the covenant of which Moses was the mediator; and by this typical baptism they were brought under the obligation of acting according to the Mosaic precepts, as Christians receiving Christian baptism are said to be baptized INTO Christ, and are thereby brought under obligation to keep the precepts of the Gospel.
D2 In the Believer's Bible Commentary a similar thought is expressed--Not only that, but all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea. To be baptized into Moses means to be identified with him and to acknowledge his leadership. As Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt toward the Promised Land, all the nation of Israel pledged allegiance to Moses at first and recognized him as the divinely appointed savior. It has been suggested that the expression "under the cloud" refers to that which identified them with God, and the expression "through the sea" describes that which separated them from Egypt.
C6 Acts 2:21--Who is this Lord that they must call on? (Peter explains that next).
C7 Acts 2:22--How was Jesus shown to be the promised Messiah? (In fulfilled prophecy, miracles, and teaching).
C8 Acts 2:23--Explain this verse especially "determined purpose and foreknowledge of God?"
D1 The plan for Jesus, the Son of God, to die as the Passover Lamb, a propitiation, a substitute for humanity was decided upon before creation. This plan is the determined purpose. John 3:16, Isaiah 53:1-12, Luke 22:22. Compare determined as used in Acts 11:29 and Acts 17:26. It was the intention, plan, for the Son of God. This was unconditional and could not by any means be thwarted. Jesus did this willingly, not from weakness or accident. Jesus did not fail, for to die was the plan! The proof of His sinlessness was in His resurrection. His resurrection also was a witness that He is the only, begotten Son of God. Romans 1:1-4. See John 19:10-11, John 10:18, and Matthew 16:53.
D3 The words "have taken' are missing from most modern translations using the excuse of the best, oldest, etc. manuscripts. Wilbur Pickering addresses this in his comment on this verse--"You took with lawless hands"—'take' and 'lawless' clearly give the idea that they were responsible for their actions. "Being delivered up by the established purpose and foreknowledge of God" is a clear statement of God's sovereignty in action. So here we have divine sovereignty and human responsibility side by side; they are both true, whether we understand it or not. (Less than 3% of the Greek manuscripts, of inferior quality, omit 'took').
D4 John Wesley comments on this verse--"Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God - The apostle here anticipates an objection, Why did God suffer such a person to be so treated? Did he not know what wicked men intended to do? And had he not power to prevent it? Yea. He knew all that those wicked men intended to do. And he had power to blast all their designs in a moment. But he did not exert that power, because he so loved the world! Because it was the determined counsel of his love, to redeem mankind from eternal death, by the death of his only - begotten Son."
C9 Acts 2:24
D1 Why couldn't Jesus be held by death? (He is sinless. See Romans 1:1-4. The word for "pain" is referring to labor pain, birthing pain).
D2 What is the importance of the resurrection for us?
E1 A living Savior
E2 Our physical resurrection Romans 8:11, 2 Corinthians 4:14
E3 A doctrine/teaching to be believed in order to be saved and sins forgiven Romans 10:9
E4 A promise of heaven. Ephesians 2:6
E5 The coming deliverer to deliver us from the coming wrath of God 1 Thessalonians 1:10
E6 A new and living body unlike our old and dying body Romans 6:5 and 1 Corinthians 15:42
C10 Acts 2:25-28
D1 Prophecy of Jesus's resurrection
D2 A quote from Psalms 16:8-11
D3 The Jews considered that passage to refer to David's resurrection, but Peter corrects that thought next.
C11 Acts 2:29-31
D1 King David is still buried.
D2 King David was a prophet.
D3 What is the significance of the words "of his flesh?" King David contributed DNA to Messiah, Jesus's body but contributed nothing to Messiah's spirit and soul.
D4 Textual note--the words "...according to flesh, He would raise up Messiah" are omitted by most translations. Wilbur Pickering notes "The Text, being Greek, has 'Christ', but king David spoke Hebrew and to him it was 'Messiah' (and Peter was presumably speaking in Hebrew). Peter makes the overt connection to Jesus in verse 32. Two percent of the Greek manuscripts, of inferior quality, omit "according to flesh, He would raise up the Messiah" (as in NIV, NASB, LB, TEV, etc.").
D5 The word "foreseeing" in Greek means foreseeing, not decreeing. God does know the future.
D6 What are some of the great doctrines taught in Acts 22:31? (Resurrection, Jesus's soul did not remain in Hades (Paradise side), and His flesh did not rot).
C12 Acts 2:32-36
D1 Is there any proof with eye-witnesses? (Yes, a jury and/or judge can find someone guilty, and the judge can sentence them to death. All of this from eye-witnesses. Legally eye-witness testimony is questionable as a person may be suggestible or reforming of the memory. You can search online for these problems. For example the report by the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Here is a link to cold case detective J. Warner Wallace's site that has a number of video's and articles regarding the reliability of New Testament eyewitnesses.
D2 Where is Jesus now? (At the right hand of the Father in heaven).
D3 Did King David ascend into heaven? (No. See Psalms 110:1 and Matthew 22:41-46. Jesus used this passage Himself to prove His deity).
D4 Why does Peter use both Lord and Christ? (No excuses for those hearing Peter).
D5 Peter preached but who brings conviction? (The Holy Spirit. See John 16:8).
C13 Acts 2:37-41--How did the people respond?
C14 Acts 2:42-47
D1 Does this passage teach communism or income equality?
D2 What is different about these people after believing in Jesus, repenting of their sins, and trusting Jesus?