Showing posts with label Bible Interpretaion. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Bible Interpretaion. Show all posts

30 September 2015

Sunday School Lesson—Grammar Method

Sunday School Lesson—Grammar Method

This is meant for at least two Sunday School Lesson.


A1 Review

B1 God knows what He authors--"But God has revealed them to us through His Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God. For who among men knows the things of a man, except the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so, no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. Now we did not receive the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is from God, in order that we might know the things freely given to us by God;" (1 Corinthians 2:10-12, EMTV)

B2 The author is God; the writers are human.

B3 Not everything is what God has said. God authenticates it as accurate.

C1 The sayings of satan

D1 "Now the serpent was more crafty than any other beast of the field that the LORD God had made. He said to the woman, "Did God actually say, 'You shall not eat of any tree in the garden'?" And the woman said to the serpent, "We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden, but God said, 'You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.'" But the serpent said to the woman, "You will not surely die. For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." (Genesis 3:1-5, ESV2011)

D2 "Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. And after fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry. And the tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command these stones to become loaves of bread." But he answered, "It is written, "'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.'" (Matthew 4:1-4, ESV2011)

C2 People

D1 "And he said, "I may not return with you, or go in with you, neither will I eat bread nor drink water with you in this place, for it was said to me by the word of the LORD, 'You shall neither eat bread nor drink water there, nor return by the way that you came.'" And he said to him, "I also am a prophet as you are, and an angel spoke to me by the word of the LORD, saying, 'Bring him back with you into your house that he may eat bread and drink water.'" But he lied to him. "(1 Kings 13:16-18, ESV2011)

D2 "Now the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah were sitting on their thrones, arrayed in their robes, at the threshing floor at the entrance of the gate of Samaria, and all the prophets were prophesying before them. And Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah made for himself horns of iron and said, "Thus says the LORD, 'With these you shall push the Syrians until they are destroyed.'" And all the prophets prophesied so and said, "Go up to Ramoth-gilead and triumph; the LORD will give it into the hand of the king." And the messenger who went to summon Micaiah said to him, "Behold, the words of the prophets with one accord are favorable to the king. Let your word be like the word of one of them, and speak favorably." But Micaiah said, "As the LORD lives, what the LORD says to me, that I will speak." And when he had come to the king, the king said to him, "Micaiah, shall we go to Ramoth-gilead to battle, or shall we refrain?" And he answered him, "Go up and triumph; the LORD will give it into the hand of the king." But the king said to him, "How many times shall I make you swear that you speak to me nothing but the truth in the name of the LORD?" And he said, "I saw all Israel scattered on the mountains, as sheep that have no shepherd. And the LORD said, 'These have no master; let each return to his home in peace.'" And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, "Did I not tell you that he would not prophesy good concerning me, but evil?" (1 Kings 22:10-18, ESV2011)

B4 Pray

B5 Context

C1 Vertical—the same or similar topic

C2 Horizontal—the preceding and following

B6 Cross References—center column, Naves, Torrey's, etc.

B7 Conservative commentaries/notes

A2 Read

B1 The whole book to understand the general feel and message.

B2 Try to find a main topic or theme.

B3 Under the historical, cultural, and people to whom it was written.

B4 Pay attention to grammar.

B5 Word studies via interlinear version and/or Strong's numbers.

C1 Basic definition

C2 Where and how the word is used elsewhere.

A3 1 John

B1 Read all

C1 I read all of 1 John at a steady pace in 10.5 minutes.

C2 Try to find the main topic. While there are many opinions, I feel that this is speaking to people, Christians, to know if they are really Christians. "These things I write to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may believe in the name of the Son of God." (1 John 5:13, EMTV)

B2 Considering grammar

C1 Greek grammar

C2 English grammar—not as accurate but close enough to help understand what the passage teaches.

B3 Write your own outline of the book. We can do this chapter at a time or the whole book at once.

A4 1 John 1:8-10

B1 What word does each sentence start with? (If).

B2 What type of sentence does if represent? (Conditional)

C1 Three types of conditional sentences.

D1 Possible

E1 Example 1—"If you don't clean your room, then..."

E2 Example 2—"If you study your Bible, then you will be a stronger Christian."

D2 Impossible

E1 Example 1—If I were you, I won't do that."

E2 Example 2—If I were a King, then I would..."

D3 In the past

E1 Example 1—If I had only done that, then I wouldn't have to..."

E2 Example 2—If she would have treated me like that, I would just walk away."

B3 1 John 1:8

C1 What is the subject and verb of 1 John 1:8? (We say)

D1 Who is we referring to?

D2 Is there anything special about the word say? (No)

C2 Consider the word that.

D1 It is NOT a pronoun.

E1 God is good. If I say that, I am nice.

E2 "...the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, cleanses us from all sin." If I say that, we have no sin.

E3 Most native English speakers will not make that mistake, but if they do, then that is how some heresies are started.

D2 It is not an adjective or adverb

D3 It is used as a conjunction. It can be used as the subject or the object

D4 Dictionary dot com has this definition: "used to introduce a subordinate clause as the subject or object of the principal verb or as the necessary complement to a statement made, or a clause expressing cause or reason, purpose or aim, result or consequence, etc.)." 4. When that introduces a relative clause, the clause is usually restrictive; that is, essential to the complete meaning of the sentence because it restricts or specifies the noun or pronoun it modifies. In the sentence The keys that I lost last month have been found, it is clear that keys referred to are a particular set. Without the that clause, the sentence The keys have been found would be vague and probably puzzling. That is used to refer to animate and inanimate nouns and thus can substitute in most uses for who(m) and which: Many of the workers that (or who) built the pyramids died while working. The negotiator made an offer that (or which) was very attractive to the union. Experienced writers choose among these forms not only on the basis of grammar and the kind of noun referred to but also on the basis of sound of the sentence and their own personal preference. 

The relative pronoun that is sometimes omitted. Its omission as a subject is usually considered nonstandard, but the construction is heard occasionally even from educated speakers: A fellow (that) lives near here takes people rafting. Most often it is as an object that the relative pronoun is omitted. The omission almost always occurs when the dependent clause begins with a personal pronoun or a proper name: The mechanic (that) we take our car to is very competent. The films (that) Chaplin made have become classics. The omission of the relative pronoun as in the two preceding examples is standard in all varieties of speech and writing.

13. The conjunction that, which introduces a noun clause, is, like the relative pronoun that, sometimes omitted, often after verbs of thinking, saying, believing, etc.: She said (that) they would come in separate cars. He dismissed the idea (that) he was being followed. As with the omission of the relative pronoun, the omission of the conjunction almost always occurs when the dependent clause begins with a personal pronoun or with a proper name. This omission of the conjunction that occurs most frequently in informal speech and writing, but it is a stylistic option often chosen in more formal speech and writing."

Reference: that. (n.d.). Unabridged. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from website:

D5 That in this sentence is for a noun clause, best I can tell, used as a direct object.

D6 The sentence makes no sense without this clause.

D7 The Greek word is ὅτι hoti. It is a conjunction.

D8 Often that used as a conjunction for a noun clause can be left out.

C3 The direct object then is "we have no sin."

D1 Note it does not say "we have not sinned."

D2 Sin is a noun.

D3 Knowing this also helps prevent false interpretations and even heresies.

D4 Who is we?

C4 The word sin then can be used for a word study.

D1 The Greek word for sin here is ἀμαρτία amartia.

D2 It means failure. (A failing to hit the mark)

E1 A failure to follow the rules of a game or competition.

E2 A failure to follow the rules of God, law, or morals.

E3 Some might understand this to be original sin or of sin before salvation, but most understand this to mean every sins in general.

E4 If I am caught stealing, and I claim that I have no sin, we understand this phrase.

D3 Other passages using the same word.

E1 "The next day John saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29, EMTV)

E2 "Therefore I said to you that you will die in your sins; for if you do not believe that I AM, you will die in your sins." (John 8:24, EMTV)

E3 ""Blessed are they whose lawless deeds have been forgiven, and whose sins have been covered;" (Romans 4:7, EMTV)

E4 "All unrighteousness is sin, and there is sin not leading to death." (1 John 5:17, EMTV)

C5 Cross references.

D1 Treasure of Scripture Knowledge by Torrey

E1 "Who can say, "I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin"?" (Proverbs 20:9, NKJV)

E2 This is reality. "All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all." (Isaiah 53:6, NKJV)

D2 Center column, etc.

C6 Horizontal context, same topic.

D1 Naves has a long, complete entry on sin.

D2 Other reference book as New and Complete Analysis of the Bible by Hitchcock.

D3 Bible dictionaries as the Bridgeway Bible Dictionary.

C7 The main clause contains two parts

D1 We deceive ourselves

E1 Who is we?

E2 Who do we deceive?

E3 Word study on deceive.

F1 The Greek word is πλανάω planao

F2 It means to cause or lead astray, to deceive, to mislead

F3 Uses

G1 "Jesus answered and said to them, "You err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God!" (Matthew 22:29, EMTV)

G2 "And Jesus answered and said to them: "Take heed that no one deceives you. For many will come in My name, saying, 'I am the Christ,' and will deceive many." (Matthew 24:4-5, EMTV)

E4 Cross references

F1 "But evil men and impostors shall advance worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived." (2 Timothy 3:13, EMTV)

F2 "receiving the wages of unrighteousness, counting as a pleasure to revel in the daytime, they are spots and blemishes, reveling in their deceptions while they feast with you," (2 Peter 2:13, EMTV)

E5 Topical study

F1 "An oracle within my heart concerning the transgression of the wicked: There is no fear of God before his eyes. For he flatters himself in his own eyes, When he finds out his iniquity and when he hates. The words of his mouth are wickedness and deceit; He has ceased to be wise and to do good. He devises wickedness on his bed; He sets himself in a way that is not good; He does not abhor evil." (Psalms 36:1-4, NKJV)

F2 "Moreover, your skirts are stained with the blood of the innocent poor. You did not catch them breaking and entering. But in spite of all these things you claim, "I am innocent. His anger is sure to turn away from me." But I will certainly judge you because you have said, "I have not sinned." (Jeremiah 2:34-35, HCSB)

E6 How does all of this help us interpret this phrase?

D2 The truth is not in us

E1 Who is us?

E2 What is the importance of the word not?

E3 Is there any importance in the word in?

E4 Word study on truth

F1 The Greek word is ἀλήθεια aletheia

F2 It means truth, reality.

F3 Give some examples of a truth.

F4 Give some examples of reality. (What if I tell you that I am a great singer?)

F5 ""You are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father you want to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own resources, for he is a liar and the father of it. "But because I tell the truth, you do not believe Me. "Which of you convicts Me of sin? And if I tell the truth, why do you not believe Me? "He who is of God hears God's words; therefore you do not hear, because you are not of God." (John 8:44-47, NKJV)

E5 Cross References

F1 "Get the truth, and do not surrender it, as well as wisdom, instruction, and understanding." (Proverbs 23:23, WEL)

F2 "Wisdom is the principal thing; Therefore get wisdom. And in all your getting, get understanding." (Proverbs 4:7, NKJV)

E5 Topical Study

F1 Bible Dictionaries

F2 Topical Bibles

E6 How can truth be in us?

B4 1 John 1:9

C1 Verse—"If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. "(1 John 1:9, EMTV)

C2 What is the difference between 1 John 1:8 and 1 John 1:9? Is there a different attitude?

C3 What does this verse teach about God?

C4 Can people do anything that would forgive sins or supplement confession?

C5 Who do we confess our sins to?

C6 If clause

D1 What is the subject and verb?

D2 What is the direct object of confess?

D3 What are we to confess?

D4 Whose sins do we confess?

D5 Who is we?

D6 Word study

E1 The Greek word for confess is ὁμολογέω homologeo

E2 It means agree with, thus acknowledge, then confess.

E3 Confess in English means to acknowledge something, many times a wrong.

E4 Other verses

F1 "Therefore whoever who will confess Me before men, I also will confess Him before My Father who is in heaven." (Matthew 10:32, EMTV)

F2 "These things his parents said because they feared the Jews, for the Jews had agreed already that if anyone should confess that He was Christ, he would be excommunicated." (John 9:22, EMTV)

F3 "Nevertheless even from among the rulers many believed in Him, but because of the Pharisees they did not confess Him, lest they should be excommunicated"; (John 12:42, EMTV)

F4 "They profess to know God, but in their works they deny Him, being abominable, disobedient, and disqualified for every good work." (Titus 1:16, EMTV)

D7 Cross references

E1 "I acknowledged my sin to You, And my iniquity I have not hidden. I said, "I will confess my transgressions to the LORD," And You forgave the iniquity of my sin. ​Selah" (Psalms 32:5, NKJV)

E2 "He who covers his sins will not prosper, But whoever confesses and forsakes them will have mercy." (Proverbs 28:13, NKJV)

E3 "and were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins." (Matthew 3:6, NKJV)

E4 "And many who had believed came confessing and telling their deeds." (Acts 19:18, NKJV)

D8 Topical Studies

C7 Main clause

D1 First part—"He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins"

E1 What is the subject and verb? (He is)

E2 Who is He?

E3 Is this He the only one who forgives sins?

E4 What is the direct object? (Faithful and just)

E5 What is the purpose these words are added " forgive us our sins." (To answer the question of faithful and just for what. If those words were not added, then is would describe character traits of God instead of action by God).

E6 " forgive us our sins" is an infinitive clause. In this case it is in the objective case, that is, as a direct object.

E7 Who does He forgive?

E8 Word study

F1 Faithful

G1 The Greek word is πιστός pistos and means faithful.

G2 The idea is to give a responsibility or command to, and it will be done, or if a teaching/doctrine the person will hold to that belief.

H1 ""Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his master appointed over his household, to give them food in due season?" (Matthew 24:45, EMTV)

H2 "God is faithful, through whom you were called into the fellowship of His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord." (1 Corinthians 1:9, EMTV)

H3 "And the things which you have heard from me through many witnesses, commit these to faithful men who will be competent to teach others also." (2 Timothy 2:2, EMTV)

H4 "These will make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for He is Lord of lords and King of kings; and those who are with Him are called, and elect, and faithful." (Revelation 17:14, EMTV)

G3 Cross Reference

H1 "There has no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above that you are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that you may be able to bear it." 1 Corinthians 10:13 KJ2000

H2 "Therefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator." 1 Peter 4:19 KJ2000

F2 Just

G1 The Greek word is δίκαιος dikaios and means lawful and just.

G2 God cannot be accused of forgiving someone for no reason. The reason is that the penalty has been paid. The Bridgeway Bible Dictionary has this under the topic of justification: "The forgiveness that believers need day by day is concerned not with the basic work of justification, but with their daily enjoyment of fellowship with God. Although the penalty of sin has been paid, the evil effects of sin are still in the world and believers cannot escape them. Their failures may disappoint themselves and God, but as they confess those failures they are assured of God's forgiveness."

G3 The idea is that God shows no favoritism in any form. Therefore we can be sure that what He does is right.

H1 Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment. (John 7:24KJ2000)

H2 And said unto them; Go you also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way. (Matthew 20:4KJ2000)

G4 Cross references

H1 Tell and bring forth your case; yea, let them take counsel together: who has declared this from ancient time? who has told it from that time? have not I the LORD? and there is no other God besides me; a just God and a Savior; there is none besides me. (Isaiah 45:21KJ2000)

H2 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him who believes in Jesus. (Romans 3:26KJ2000)

H3 And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are your works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are your ways, you King of saints. (Revelation 15:3KJ2000)

D2 Second part—to cleanse us from all unrighteousness

E1 What is the subject and verb? (He is)

E2 The thought is this—He is faithful and cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

E3 Ask the question, faithful and just, for what? (To cleanse us from all unrighteous, which is an infinitive used as an object. A direct object answers the question of what; what is He faithful and just to do. Us is an indirect object. An indirect object answers the question to or for who does He do this).

E4 How is He faithful and just to cleanse us?

E5 Who is us?

E6 What is cleansed from us?

E7 What does cleanse mean?

F1 The Greek word is cleanse. It is used as clearing the ground of weeds, to prune away, and even to sift wheat. In referring to humans, it is used to purify as to heal leprosy and to forgive sins.

F2 Uses

G1 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. (2 Corinthians 7:1KJ2000)

G2 And, behold, there came a leper and worshiped him, saying, Lord, if you will, you can make me clean. (Matthew 8:2KJ2000)

G3 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? (Hebrews 9:14KJ2000)

F3 Cross references

G1 And I will cleanse them from all their iniquity, by which they have sinned against me; and I will pardon all their iniquities, by which they have sinned, and by which they have transgressed against me. (Jeremiah 33:8KJ2000)

G2 And such were some of you: but you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.

(1 Corinthians 6:11KJ2000)

B4 1 John 1:10

C1 Verse—If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us. (1 John 1:10KJ2000)

C2 If clause—If we claim that we have not sinned

D1 The word if signifies what type of sentence? (Conditional)

D2 What type of conditional sentence is this? (Possible)

D3 Who is we?

D4 What is the subject/verb?

D5 Note that this time sin is a verb.

D6 Does sinned mean the attitude of sin, original sin, sin nature, sinful thoughts, desires, words, and deeds, or something else?

D7 What is sin?

D8 What is it that we are saying?

D9 Can this be true?

D10 A good comment from Robertson Word Pictures on this verse. "David Smith observes that the claim to personal perfectionism has two causes, one the stifling of conscience in making God a liar (pseustēn, the word used of the devil by Jesus in John 8:44), and the other ignorance of God's word, which is not in us, else we should not make such a claim. "

C3 Main clause

D1 What are the two truths about a person who claims to have not sinned?

E1 We make God a liar.

E2 God's word is not in us.

D2 We make God a liar.

E1 Why is this?

E2 Who is we?

E3 How can we make God a liar?

E4 What does God say about our sin? Consider: "Therefore seeing we also are surrounded with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which does so easily ensnare us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, Looking unto Jesus the author and perfecter of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God. For consider him that endured such hostility of sinners against himself, lest you be wearied and faint in your minds. You have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin. And you have forgotten the exhortation which speaks unto you as unto children, My son, despise not the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when you are rebuked of him: For whom the Lord loves he chastens, and scourges every son whom he receives. If you endure chastening, God deals with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chastens not? But if you be without chastisement, of which all are partakers, then are you illegitimate children, and not sons. Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh who corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live? For they verily for a few days chastened us after their own pleasure; but he for our profit, that we might be partakers of his holiness. Now no chastening for the present seems to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yields the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them who are trained by it." (Hebrews 12:1-11KJ2000). In this life we still have the flesh which wants its own desires instead of God's desires.

D3 The truth is not in us.

E1 What is the truth?

E2 How can it be in us?

F1 Yea, they despised the pleasant land, they believed not his word: (Psalms 106:24KJ2000)

F2 He that says, I know him, and keeps not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him. (1 John 2:4KJ2000)

E3 What is the importance of believing God?

E4 What is the attitude of this type of person?

E5 If this attitude is present, is this person a Christian?

E6 How can someone actually believe this about themselves?

E7 What is the standard of truth?

E8 How do verses 8-10 give us insight if we are or are not a Christian?

E9 How important is it to know the truth?

E10 How important is reality?

15 September 2015

General Principles Bible Interpretation

General Principles on Interpretation

Bible interpretation

A1 The person

B1 Help of the Holy Spirit 1 Corinthians 2:13

B2 Prayer

B3 Attitude

C1 Bible is God's word

C2 Bible is 100% truth

C3 Faith is taking the Bible in the plain, normal sense

C4 Humility

D1 To accept what it says rather than making/forcing it to say something that we want it to say.

D2 To understand that what God says is correct and perfect, whereas our understanding is corrupted.

D3 To believe and act in such a way that shows we believe that God is the boss, the final authority. What the Scripture says and teaches is final. It is God's teaching.

C5 Understand the concept that the Bible is the final authority. 2 Timothy 3:16-17

A2 The Method

B1 Plain, normal sense

C1 Definitions would be in the plain, normal sense

C2 Definitions need to be understood in their context

C3 Definitions need to take in consideration the Greek or Hebrew word

B2 Setting

C1 History

C2 Geography

C3 Language

C4 Culture

B3 Difference

C1 Between Old Testament and New Testament

C2 Israel and the Church

B4 Context

C1 Vertical

C2 Horizontal

B5 Cross references

B6 We are not to force an interpretation but simply understand it means what it says. 2 Peter 1:20-21. For example, the Apostle John wrote in the Book of Revelation many things had to understand. John did not see something and then hide the meaning in some mysterious terms. What John saw, he wrote, so we should accept that. We may guess at the meaning but must be careful not to force an interpretation. Also this passage refers to the idea that the prophets did not express their opinion, guess, or anything from themselves but were expressing God's words.

C1 The Greek word has been taken in two ways.

D1 A loosening, that is, a prophet gives what God has given him/her. Numbers 16:28, Jeremiah 23:16

D2 An interpretation, that is, what does this mean. 2 Corinthians 4:2, Ephesians 4:14, 1 Thessalonians 2:3-5

C2 It does not mean that only a certain class of people have a special authority to interpret. Many look to the Pope, or the living Prophet of the church, or to headquarters.

B7 The Bible was given in a progressive revelation where God revealed further information in time. Thus the New Testament helps us to understand the Old Testament. This does not mean that what was revealed first is incorrect but incomplete.

B8 Take note of modifiers as adjectives and adverbs that help define the word.

B9 See Principles of Literal Bible Interpretation for further explanation and examples. The original article is here.

A3 The Application

B1 Not what does it mean to me, but what does it mean.

B2 We learn

C1 Things we must do. For example Ephesians 4:25-32 for both some things we must do and some things we must NOT do.

C2 Things we must NOT do.

C3 Principles of what to do or what not to do. Proverbs 16:18-20, Proverbs 19:11

C4 Examples of success or failure. 2 Samuel 11, Matthew 26:75, Luke 10:25-37, Luke 17:11-19

21 August 2015

Bible Interpretaion

Chapter 2 outline/notes of Methodical Bible Study by Robert A. Traina


literal figure of speech



A1 Purpose of Interpretation and Function of Interpreter

A2 Major phases of interpretation

B1 Definitive Phase--defining terms, words, phrases

B2 Rational Phase--why these terms, words, and phrases used instead of others

B3 Implicational Phase--besides the obvious meaning are their facets that are not obvious. For example, "And blessed is he who is not offended because of Me" (Matthew 11:6, NKJV) implies that one who is offended at and by Jesus is not going to be blessed.

A3 Specifics

B1 Interpretative Questions

C1 Defined--asking questions. "What does this mean?" "Why did he say this?" "Why did he say it this way?" These are but a few of the type of questions that could be asked.

C2 Types

D1 Who or what is involved in this passage?

D2 How is ________ accomplished?

D3 When does it happen?

D4 Where does this happen?

C3 Some will have a short answer and some will need a much longer answer.

C4 What is happening here? This is the main, underlying question.

C5 Example, "Jesus spoke these words, lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said: "Father, the hour has come. Glorify Your Son, that Your Son also may glorify You," (John 17:1, NKJV).

D1 What does the word "glorify" mean?

D2 What does it mean for Jesus to be glorified?

D3 How is Jesus to be glorified?

D4 When?

D5 Why Him?

C6 What form is this?

D1 Poetry

D2 Prose

D3 For a fuller list see here, here (a shorter list with an assignment),

C7 What attitude/tone is present (Traina uses the word "atmosphere")?

D1 Happy (Luke 24:41, for example)

D2 Sad (Psalm 3, for example)

D3 Condemning (Psalm 7, for example)

D4 Historical (Ezra 1, for example)

D5 Thanksgiving (Psalm 136, for example)

D6 Teaching (Psalm 1, for example)

C8 Rational/logic/defensive/apologetics, etc.

D1 These different words describe the argument the Bible writer employs to prove his statement. See Hebrews 1, for example, where the author states that Jesus Christ is superior and lists the reasons why.

D2 Sometimes is found in a cascade of "why" questions?

E1 Why did this happen?

E2 Why did they make the choices that they did?

E3 Where is God in this passage?

E4 What does this say, then why does it said it this way, then what does it mean? One could go on with another "why" question that builds on the previous one.

D3 Example Psalm 23

E1 What does "Lord" mean?

E2 Why is this word for God uses instead of another?

E3 Why is God compared to a shepherd?

E4 What are sheep in this passage?

E5 Many other questions come from the rest of the verses.

B2 Interpretative Answers

C1 Subjective

D1 The Bible is a spiritual book and must be understood thusly.

D2 The Bible is a book to be read and studied with common sense. If something is obvious, then it is obvious. Don't try to find some hidden meaning in an obvious passage.

D3 Illustrations by a teacher (Jesus used illustrations a lot) must be understood as illustration. Statements must be taken as statement. We cannot change the plain, obvious sense of a passage into an image. For example see here especially Test question #2. Also see Matthew 16:5-12. The phrase "leaven of the Pharisees" was understand as the yeast that Pharisees use, but Jesus uses it as an illustration, in a figurative sense.

"When the plain sense of Scripture

makes common sense,

seek no other sense;

Therefore, take every word

at its primary, ordinary,

usual, literal meaning

Unless the facts

of the immediate context,

studied in the light

Of related passages and

axiomatic and fundamental truths

indicate clearly otherwise." Dr. David L. Cooper

D4 We cannot let our life experiences interpret or have a bearing on our interpretation. We are not to say, "What does this passage mean to you?" We are to say, "What does this passage mean?"

C2 Objective

D1 Language

E1 Our own mother tongue. This deals with translation. Words rarely translate with the exact definition.

E2 Original language.

F1 Reference source such as "Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume."

F2 See how the word is used in other passages and how other translations have it.

F3 When it is a compound word, do not place too much weight on the root word. For example ἐπίγνωσις epignosis does mean something different than its root word γνῶσις gnosis.

D2 Tense

E1 This is referring to the Greek tense as present or aorist, for example. For more information on tense, mood, and etc. see here, here, and here

E2 What do these various tenses mean?

E3 What effect do they have on the passage?

D3 Hebrew (aspect. There is no idea of tense in Biblical Hebrew). For information see here, here, and here

D4 Literary forms--simile and so on

D5 Mood--the tone of the writing as happy, warning, praise, etc.

D6 Historical setting

D7 Interpretations of others--Important because if I am the only one to come up with an interpretation since the New Testament was written, then it is most likely to be a false interpretation.

A4 False Kinds of Interpretation--Errors in Interpretation

B1 Fragmentary

C1 Approaches Scriptures as a bunch of isolated texts without any relationship to each other.

C2 Ignores context--especially the greater context

C3 Often happens in preaching where a text is chosen, a topic decided upon, and preached out of context.

B2 Dogmatic

C1 A certain doctrine is a well-established belief to that person.

C2 Any doctrine that does not seem to fit the said belief is ignored or changed.

C3 This is the idea of theology preceding Scriptures, that is, doctrine/theology is more important and of higher authority than the Bible.

B3 Rationalistic

C1 Some incidents in the Bible cannot be true because they cannot be explained with logic.

C2 Miracles are not accepted so are explained away.

C3 The feeding of the 5,000 could not happen the way it is recorded in the Gospels, so it must be every one brought their own sack lunch.

B4 Mythological

C1 Some things in the Bible cannot be explained.

C2 These passages then are considered to be a myth of ignorant people.

C3 Some teach what the Bible teaches about salvation is truth, but not necessarily science and history.

B5 Historical

C1 The Bible is only the historical writings of an ancient people.

C2 It is studied only in that sense.

C3 The spiritual implications and purposes are ignored.

B6 Allegorical

C1 This is often applied to parables, those all passages are open for their imagination.

C2 Sometimes greatly distorted definitions are given for objects in a lesson.

C3 There is only some spiritual truth to be taught.

B7 Literal

C1 Sometimes called wooden literalism.

C2 When the plain sense shows a passage to be an illustration/simile, but the interpreter understands it as literal.

B8 Typological

C1 Scriptures contain types.

C2 An example would be the Israeli sacrifices of Leviticus which point to the ultimate sacrifice of Messiah--Jesus Christ.

C3 Since C2 is true, then all Scripture is forced into this idea. Not much is taken in its plain, normal sense.

B9 Predictive

C1 Some Scriptures are predictive, that is, speaks of future events.

C2 Since some do, we must interpret all Scriptures speaking of the future.

B10 Systematized

C1 A New Testament passage deals with a particular action that we are to do.

C2 Then all the Bible is interpreted in light of that one action.

B11 Cross-reference

C1 Cross references are important to help understand a passage.

C2 But the cross references are not examined in their context.

B12 Encyclopedic

C1 The Bible has answers for many situations that arise in our life.

C2 Thus every single situation that happens to us has an answer in the Bible.

C3 The danger is that passages will be twisted/wrested to force an interpretation not fitting the context.

B13 Literary

C1 The Bible is great literature.

C2 It is nothing more.

B14 interpretation other

C1 Misinterpretation--the wrong interpretation

C2 Sub-interpretation--not getting the FULL interpretation from a Scripture verse/passage.

C3 Super-interpretation--getting more out of a passage than is really there.

C4 Grammatical-historical

C5 Traditional--a passage is not examined for its meaning because it is interpreted already by a denomination or church authority.

C6 The Bible author interprets a passage. This happens in some of the parables of Jesus where he interprets that passage.

A5 Further resources

B1 Bible Interpretation

C1 Bible Interpretation by Cooper Abrams III

C2 Inductive Bible Study

B2 Bible Interpretation Errors

C1 Nine common errors in Bible Interpretation

C2 Common Errors