Showing posts with label Romans. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Romans. Show all posts

19 November 2020

Devotional Notes Romans 16


B1 What does this mean?

C1 Paul’s Personal Greetings

D1 Phoebe, a deaconess

E1 I wrote an article about this: A Few Thoughts About Deaconesses

E2 Robertson’s Word Pictures comment on Romans 16:1:

Who is a servant of the church (ousan diakonon tēs ekklēsias). The etymology of diakonos we have had repeatedly. The only question here is whether it is used in a general sense or in a technical sense as in Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:8-13. In favour of the technical sense of “deacon” or “deaconess” is the addition of “tēs ekklēsias” (of the church). In some sense Phoebe was a servant or minister of the church in Cenchreae. Besides, right in the midst of the discussion in 1 Timothy 3:8-13 Paul has a discussion of gunaikas (1 Timothy 3:11) either as women as deaconesses or as the wives of deacons (less likely though possible). The Apostolic Constitutions has numerous allusions to deaconesses. The strict separation of the sexes made something like deaconesses necessary for baptism, visiting the women, etc. Cenchreae, as the eastern port of Corinth, called for much service of this kind. Whether the deaconesses were a separate organization on a par with the deacons we do not know nor whether they were the widows alluded to in 1 Ti 5:9.

E3 The Roman believers were to help her in every way possible. This is referring to her ministry. Note, that she has been a helper to many. We should always be willing to help (if we are able) fellow believers especially if they are engaged in ministry.

D2 Priscilla and Aquila

E1 See Acts 18 and 1 Corinthians 16:19

E2 A few articles

F1 Who were Priscilla and Aquila?

F2 Priscilla and Aquila

D3 Epaenetus, the first Achaia convert. See here.

D4 Verse 6, Mary. Adam Clarke writes: Who this Mary was, or what the labor was which she bestowed upon the apostles, we know not. Her works, though hidden from man, are with God; and her name is recorded with honor in this book of life.

D5 Andronicus and Junia.

E1 Not Apostles but well known and highly regarded by the Apostles. Some articles on controversies about them:

F1 Junia Among the Apostles: The Double Identification Problem in Romans 16:7

F2 Was Junia/Junias a female apostle?

F3 Romans 16:7 at Bible Hub. Multiple translations and some comments.

E2 Two men or husband and wife? Most likely, it is husband and wife as in most translations.

D6 Amplias. See Bible Hub and Net Bible Dictionary.

D7 Verse 9,

E1 Urbane. Bible Hub entry.

E2 Stachys. Bible Hub entry.

D8 Verse 10,

E1 Apelles. Bible Hub entry.

E2 Aristobulus. Bible Hub entry.

D9 Verse 11,

E1 Herodion. Bible Hub entry.

E2 Narcissus. Bible Hub entry.

D10 Verse 12,

E1 Tryphena and Tryphosa. Most likely, they are sisters serving Christ. Bible Hub entry.

E2 Persis. Another sister in Christ. Bible Hub entry.

D11 Verse 13, Rufus. Bible Hub entry.

D12 Verse 14-15. See Haldane’s Commentary.

D13 Verse 16, showing greetings and the Christian fellowship of one family in Christ.

D14 Verse 17, two types of people to avoid.

E1 The Greek word avoid is ἐκκλίνω ekklínō. It means to turn away from even to shun.

E2 Those who create dissensions.

F1 This is mainly referring to doctrine. Many want to change the Christian doctrine taught by Jesus and the Apostles. Some ignore it. Some redefine it. Some apply a philosophical justification to come up with an unrecognizable teaching. It is best to not speculate but accept the plain, normal sense of Scripture.

F2 It applies to those who do not agree with Paul’s Roman letter.

F3 Matthew 28:19-20 NRSV Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age.

E3 Those who create opportunities for sin.

F1 Sin begins in the heart, blossoms, and finally a person gives in, sins, and faces the consequences. See James 1:14-15.

F2 Often people separate for reasons not required by Scriptures. Let us be very careful.

F3 1 Corinthians 5:11 NIV but now I am writing to you that you must not associate with anyone who claims to be a brother or sister but is sexually immoral or greedy, an idolater or slanderer, a drunkard or swindler. Do not even eat with such people.

F4 2 Thessalonians 3:6 NIV In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, we command you, brothers and sisters, to keep away from every believer who is idle and disruptive and does not live according to the teaching you received from us.

F5 Titus 3:9-11 NIV but avoid foolish controversies and genealogies and arguments and quarrels about the law, because these are unprofitable and useless. 10 Warn a divisive person once, and then warn them a second time. After that, have nothing to do with them. 11 You may be sure that such people are warped and sinful; they are self-condemned.

D15 Verse 18, the motive for the errors noted in verse 17.

E1 Selfish interests and goals are common errors.

E2 Note how they believe they are serving the Lord Jesus but definitely are not serving Him.

E3 Notice their method of swaying people to their opinion. They use pleasant speech and flattery. Barclay remarks:

There are two interesting words in this passage. There is the word we have translated plausibility (chrestologia, Greek #5542). The Greeks themselves defined a chrestologos (see Greek #5542) as "a man who speaks well and who acts ill." He is the kind of man who, behind a facade of pious words, is a bad influence, who leads astray, not by direct attack, but by subtlety, who pretends to serve Christ, but in reality is destroying the faith. There is the word we have translated untainted with what is evil. It is the word akeraios (Greek #185) and it is used of metal which has no suspicion of alloy, of wine and of milk which are not adulterated with water. It describes something which is absolutely pure of any corruption. The Christian is a man whose utter sincerity must be beyond all doubt.

E4 They show great interest and kindness to others, but it is only to groom them for some evil.

E5 They flatter them and make them believe they are special to this teacher.

D16 Verse 19 refers to the Roman believers having a good testimony in society.

D17 Verse 20. God does punish. He does not say when. We must be patient. God gives us grace to be patient.

D18 Verse 21-23 are some of the believers with Paul who send their greetings and blessings to the Roman believers.

C2 Paul’s Blessing and Prayer for the Roman Christians

D1 Verse 24, Paul’s confidence in the Lord Jesus to help them.

D2 Verse 25, God has both the power/strength and desire to help us live steadfastly in the faith.

E1 We must believe God. James 5:8 CSB You also must be patient. Strengthen your hearts, because the Lord's coming is near.

E2 The ministry of all to teach what we believe and why and how we live and why is SO important. Colossians 2:5-7 CSB For I may be absent in body, but I am with you in spirit, rejoicing to see how well ordered you are and the strength of your faith in Christ. 6 So then, just as you have received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live in him, 7 being rooted and built up in him and established in the faith, just as you were taught, and overflowing with gratitude.

D3 Verse 25, the mystery is the clearness of the Gospel and the life God wants for us who live in God’s kingdom in spirit and someday in presence. It also refers that God’s blessings of salvation are not only for Jews but also Gentiles.

D4 Verse 26,

E1 The importance of prophecy

E2 God is everlasting

E3 The obedience of faith.

F1 God gives the command to believe. Mark 1:15 NLT the time promised by God has come at last!" he announced. "The Kingdom of God is near! Repent of your sins and believe the Good News!"

F2 We can resist or not resist after the Holy Spirit frees our blindness and deadness. The Holy Spirit enables what was not enabled because of the sin nature.

G1 Resist:

H1 2 Thessalonians 1:8 CSB when he takes vengeance with flaming fire on those who don't know God and on those who don't obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus.

H2 1 Peter 4:17 NKJV for the time has come for judgment to begin at the house of God; and if it begins with us first, what will be the end of those who do not obey the gospel of God?

G2 Not resist:

H1 Acts 16:14 RSV One who heard us was a woman named Lydia, from the city of Thyatira, a seller of purple goods, who was a worshiper of God. The Lord opened her heart to give heed to what was said by Paul.

H2 Isaiah 50:5 RSV The Lord GOD has opened my ear, and I was not rebellious, I turned not backward.

G3 Luke 24:45 RSV Then he opened their minds to understand the scriptures.

D5 Romans 16:27 WEL [May] praise [be given] to God, who alone is wise, through Jesus Christ forever. Amen.

E1 Praise to God alone.

F1 Exodus 20:3 NLT You must not have any other god but me.

F2 John 4:23 NLT but the time is coming—indeed it's here now—when true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and in truth. The Father is looking for those who will worship him that way.

E2 God is the only one with full and complete wisdom.

F1 Psalm 147:5 NLT How great is our Lord! His power is absolute! His understanding is beyond comprehension!

F2 Isaiah 40:28 NLT Have you never heard? Have you never understood? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of all the earth. He never grows weak or weary. No one can measure the depths of his understanding.

E3 Through Jesus Christ. All honor is His.

F1 Philippians 2:10-11 NLT that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

F2 John 17:1 NLT After saying all these things, Jesus looked up to heaven and said, "Father, the hour has come. Glorify your Son so he can give glory back to you.

B2 How do I apply this to my life? To love the brothers and sisters, be faithful, trust in God’s grace to remain steadfast and faithful to the end.


B1 For an in-depth commentary on Romans 9-11 from an Arminian viewpoint, see Romans Blog Series.

B2 Precept Austin

C1 Romans Verse by Verse(Scroll down)

C2 Romans resources

17 November 2020

Devotional Notes Romans 15


B1 What does this mean?

C1 Helping Our Weaker Christian Brother and Sister

D1 We must always be considerate and aware of others. Everyone is offensive in some way, but this is referring to an attitude of doing or saying something that is not necessary. We must also take a stand of respect for God regardless if that is offensive.

E1 Exodus 1:17 NLT but because the midwives feared God, they refused to obey the king's orders. They allowed the boys to live, too.

E2 Sometimes being offensive can save a life: Ezekiel 3:18-19 NLT If I warn the wicked, saying, 'You are under the penalty of death,' but you fail to deliver the warning, they will die in their sins. And I will hold you responsible for their deaths. 19 If you warn them and they refuse to repent and keep on sinning, they will die in their sins. But you will have saved yourself because you obeyed me.

E3 The attitude of the Apostle Paul: 1 Thessalonians 2:7-8 NRSV though we might have made demands as apostles of Christ. But we were gentle among you, like a nurse tenderly caring for her own children. 8 So deeply do we care for you that we are determined to share with you not only the gospel of God but also our own selves, because you have become very dear to us.

E4 Even the Lord Jesus did not seek to please himself. This is a quote from Psalm 69:9.

E5 Matthew 11:29 ESV Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.

D2 Verse 4 is one reason we read and study the Old Testament. In the Old Testament

E1 We learn about the character traits of God, His decisions, His management of His kingdom, principles of right and wrong, prophecy, what pleases and displeases Him, etc.

E2 We learn from the people lives and choices examples of success and failure.

E3 We have a source of absolute truth.

E4 We have God’s promises to encourage us.

E5 Spiritual growth as in Matthew 4:4 NRSV but he answered, "It is written, 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God. (This is a quote from Deuteronomy 8:3 NRSV He humbled you by letting you hunger, then by feeding you with manna, with which neither you nor your ancestors were acquainted, in order to make you understand that one does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of the LORD).

D3 From the Bible Illustrator on God’s patience:

Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded. —

The God of patience: — When we say God is patient four things are implied.

I. PROVOCATION. Where there is nothing to try the temper there can be no patience. Humanity provokes God. The provocation is great, universal, constant. Measure His patience by the provocation.

II. SENSIBILITY. Where there is no tenderness or susceptibility of feeling, there may be obduracy and stoicism, but no patience. Patience implies feeling. God is infinitely sensitive. "Oh, do not this abominable thing," etc.

III. KNOWLEDGE. Where the provocation is not known, however great, and however sensitive the being against whom it is directed, there can be no patience. God knows all the provocations.

IV. POWER. Where a being has not the power to resent an insult or to punish a provocation though he may feel it and know it, his forbearing is not patience, it is simply weakness. He is bound by the infirmity of his nature to be passive. God is all powerful. He could damn all His enemies in one breath. (D. Thomas, D. D.)

D4 Likeminded, seeking to be agreeable to all. Ephesians 4:3 NIV Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace.

D5 Our whole being—body, soul, and spirit is to praise and bring glory in our thoughts, desires, words, and deeds. This should be our attitude, motive, and goal.

E1 Hebrews 4:16 ESV Let us then with confidence draw near to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.

E2 Hebrews 13:9 NLT So do not be attracted by strange, new ideas. Your strength comes from God's grace, not from rules about food, which don't help those who follow them.

C2 Praising God Together

D1 Christians do disagree on trivial things, as has been mentioned, so let us put up with these trivial things without fuss. God doesn’t fuss about us in these things either.

D2 Verse 8 shows Christ Jesus’s ministry to those who are circumcised (Jews) for truth confirming the promises to Israel.

D3 Verse 9-12 shows Christ Jesus’s ministry of mercy to Gentiles. He is Messiah of all people, not just Jews. Deuteronomy 32:43 Brenton Rejoice, ye heavens, with him, and let all the angels of God worship him; rejoice ye Gentiles, with his people, and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him; for he will avenge the blood of his sons, and he will render vengeance, and recompense justice to his enemies, and will reward them that hate him; and the Lord shall purge the land of his people.

D4 True joy and peace can only come from God. Happiness is not mentioned because being happy depends on the circumstances. Our hope is increased by the ministry of the Holy Spirit, because sometimes we are sooo discouraged that only God can help.

C3 Paul Reminds Them God Choose Him to Be Their Apostle

D1 Continuing from the previous verse, the apostle mentions the work of believers for each other. We do have work to do for God.

D2 Romans 15:14 WEL I, myself, am also persuaded about you, my brothers and sisters, that you are also full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, also able to caution one another.

D3 3 ministries of believers to each other. How are we doing?

E1 Goodness

F1 The Greek word is ἀγαθωσύνη agathōsýnē. It means uprightness of heart and life, goodness, kindness.

F2 It is a fruit of the Holy Spirit’s work and ministry in our lives (Galatians 5:22).

F3 God’s light in us produces wonderful changes in our life which can transfer to a better society. Ephesians 5:8-9 NLT for once you were full of darkness, but now you have light from the Lord. So live as people of light! 9 For this light within you produces only what is good and right and true.

F4 We need God’s power to do these good things (2 Thessalonians 2:11).

E2 Knowledge

F1 The Greek word is γνῶσις gnōsis. It means knowledge.

F2 Here the knowledge is the doctrines and life rules for the Christian life.

F3 ISBE has this comment:

A large part of the usage necessarily relates to natural knowledge (sometimes with a carnal connotation, as Gen 4:1, 17), but the greatest stress also is laid on the possession of moral and spiritual knowledge (e.g., Psalm 119:66; Proverbs 1:4, 7, 22, 29; 8:10, etc.; Luke 1:77; Rom 15:14; 2Pet 1:5-6,). The highest knowledge, as said, is the knowledge of God and Christ, and of God's will (Hosea 6:6; Romans 11:33; Ephesians 1:17; 4:13; Philippians 1:9; 3:8; Colossians 1:9-10, etc.). The moral conditions of spiritual knowledge are continually insisted on ("If any man willeth to do his will, he shall know of the teaching, whether it is of God," John 7:17). On the. other hand, the pride of intellectual knowledge is condemned; it must be joined with love ("Knowledge puffeth up, 1 Corinthians 8:1).

E3 Caution

F1 The Greek word is νουθετέω nouthetéō. It means to put in mind, i.e. (by implication) to caution or reprove gently.

F2 A few verses of our ministry to each other.

G1 1 Corinthians 4:14 NLT I am not writing these things to shame you, but to warn you as my beloved children.

G2 Colossians 3:16 NLT Let the message about Christ, in all its richness, fill your lives. Teach and counsel each other with all the wisdom he gives. Sing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs to God with thankful hearts.

G3 1 Thessalonians 5:14 NLT Brothers and sisters, we urge you to warn those who are lazy. Encourage those who are timid. Take tender care of those who are weak. Be patient with everyone.

F3 Let us be open to when others come to us and give us warning. Let us listen. We don’t have to bow our knee to them, but we need to listen and not argue, justify ourselves, or make excuses. Let God confirm it to us.

D4 Paul calls himself a priest. It is only in the sense of teaching new converts, especially Gentiles, to give spiritual sacrifices to God.

E1 Sacrifice of our bodies to serve God by living and talking pleasing to God as in Romans 12:1-2.

E2 Sacrifice of praise includes thankfulness and giving God credit for what He has, is, and will do as Hebrews 13:5.

E3 Sacrifice of help includes (as we are able) financial, physical, etc. helps as in Hebrews 13:16.

E4 Sacrifice of martyrdom as in 2 Timothy 4:6.

D5 Verse 17, we always rejoice when God’s work is done, people place their faith and trust into Jesus, and God’s blessings.

D6 Paul is excited that God has used him for many to believe. He gives God the credit.

D7 Verse 22, sometimes God hinders us from something. Paul was hindered from going to Rome for the purpose of preaching the Gospel to those who have never heard.

C4 Paul Plans to Visit Rome

D1 Verses 23-25, Paul has preached in many areas, laid the foundation for the faith, and now on his journeys he has the opportunity for some fellowship with the Roman believers. Compare 1 Corinthians 16 and 2 Corinthians 8-9.

D2 Verses 26-27, part of the reason is financial assistance to the brethren in need. His rationale is that they have helped us spiritually, so we should have them financially.

D3 Verse 28 is Paul’s plan. He will deliver the gifts to the brethren in Israel then come back and stop for a visit in Rome.

D4 Verse 29-30, Paul asks for their prayers so that he will have a safe journey for many Jews wanted Him dead.

D5 Verse 33 teaches that we are to refresh, encourage, bring joy and common hope to each other.

C5 Questions

D1 Define weaker brother or sister.

D2 How can we help them?

D3 What is our motive to help them?

D4 List some reasons for reading and studying the Old Testament.

D5 What are 4 facets of patience?

D6 Name 3 ministries of believers for and to each other. Can the sisters do this for men?

D7 What are some spiritual sacrifices?

B2 How do I apply this to my life? Give me grace O Lord to do these things.

18 August 2020

Devotional Notes Romans 14


B1 What does this mean?

C1 God’s Rules in Relationships with Our Christian Brother and Sister

D1 Verse 1 Regarding Food

E1 The passage teaches the difference between conviction and opinion. Conviction= “I must not eat.” Opinion= “I can eat unless it damages my fellow Christian’s faith.”

E2 Conviction may be present in both parties, but it may be different if one feels it affects their salvation or rightness with God.

E3 Those, who feel it is OK to eat any food, are not to judge and condemn someone who is vegan, nor are vegans to judge and condemn those who eat any food.

E4 Weak is the idea that they cannot accept the idea of eating all and any type of food. They feel that their rightness with God will be affected.

E5 We do not want to cause troubles in the church because of food.

E6 This idea could be applied about the color of carpet in the worship area or type of curtains, etc.

D2 Regarding Special Days

E1 The same applies to those who believe that Saturday or Sunday is special or if all days are equal.

E2 This is not an issue for brothers and sisters to fight over.

E3 Comment: (Source)

We are not our own but Christ’s (1 Co 6:19-note). This right of possession, and the consequent duty of devotion and obedience, are not founded on creation but on redemption. We are Christ’s because he has bought us with a price.


In all of Scripture, there is no greater call

for holy living and for submission

to the sovereign and unconditional

lordship of Jesus Christ.


To deny the lordship of Jesus Christ in the life of any believer is to subvert the full work, power, and purpose of His crucifixion and resurrection. Christ's Lordship is the foundational truth for the unity of the Church amidst diversity of opinion.

D3 Regarding Judgment

E1 We are not to judge and condemn our brother and sister over such things.

E2 All believers are God’s servants.

E3 Different cultures have different practices in food and life. It is OK. They do not need to be changed to our opinion.

E4 We must give an account of our actions. If we judge and condemn for such things, we might incur the anger of God.

E5 Comments (Source)

Warren Wiersbe: Both strong and weak must stand at the Judgment Seat of Christ, and they will not judge each other—they will be judged by the Lord. The Judgment Seat of Christ is that place where Christians will have their works judged by the Lord. It has nothing to do with our sins, since Christ has paid for them and they can be held against us no more (Romans 8:1). (The Bible exposition commentary)


William Newell: It is a matter of reward for our service, and not salvation, that is here in question. (Romans 14 - Newell's Commentary on Romans)

C2 Rationale

D1 God is judge, not us.

D2 Paul’s opinion: No food is unclean in itself. He is speaking of Jewish teaching on uncleanness.

D3 We must practice the law of love towards loving our neighbor as ourselves.

D4 Verse 16, I believe, refers to non-believers looking at the Christian community.

D5 Verse 17 shows us that righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit are more important than food or drink but also applies to all that Paul has written about.

E1 Some things are more important than others.

E2 The righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit are more important. Our focus must be on these things.

E3 Food might be important to some, but all should understand the lesser importance of these.

E4 The kingdom of God is where God rules. God does not rule on earth yet. The place on earth where He does rule is in the Christian’s heart.

E5 All the Christian blessings here are from taking the yoke of Jesus Christ. Matthew 11:28-30 NRSV Come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest. 29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me; for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. 30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

D6 Verse 18, these things refer to righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. Both God and humans are pleased when people live this way.

D7 It should be our goal to be well pleasing to God. We are His sons and daughters. We are citizens of His kingdom. We love God.

D8 Peace in the church and encouraging each other’s faith to grow is what is important, not food and drink.

D9 Most people who claim to be the weaker Christian are not, but why should we go out of our way to be offensive to anyone.

D10 Doubt has the idea of back and forth, so thinking, “Yes, this is OK,” or “No, this is not OK.”

D11 A good comment: (Source)

Ray Stedman sums up this section writing that Paul is saying "Do not deliberately stumble or shock your brother or sister. Do not deliberately do things that will offend them, or even make them feel uncomfortable. Think about them, not yourself. SECOND: Give up your right when it threatens the peace or hinders the growth of another individual. Be alert to judge in that area. And THIRD: Never act from doubt. Act only from conviction, by the Word, and by the Spirit of God. If these problems are all settled on that basis, a congregation will be moving gradually toward the great liberty that we have as children of God.

C3 Questions

D1 What is judging?

D2 Why are we to be careful in what we judge and condemn?

D3 What is our goal in serving God?

D4 What is our goal in helping our brother and sister?


14 August 2020

Devotional Notes Romans 13


B1 What does this mean? 

C1 God’s Rules for Our Relationship with Government 

D1 God sets up and brings down who will be the leader. Some leaders are sort of good and some evil. They have been delegated by God to the office of government leader. If they do things God’s way, there is blessing. If they do everything not God’s way, there is trouble and curse. 

E1 King Nebuchadnezzar: Daniel 4:29-32 GNB Only twelve months later, while he was walking around on the roof of his royal palace in Babylon, 30 he said, "Look how great Babylon is! I built it as my capital city to display my power and might, my glory and majesty." 31 Before the words were out of his mouth, a voice spoke from heaven, "King Nebuchadnezzar, listen to what I say! Your royal power is now taken away from you. 32 You will be driven away from human society, live with wild animals, and eat grass like an ox for seven years. Then you will acknowledge that the Supreme God has power over human kingdoms and that he can give them to anyone he chooses." 

E2 The Exodus Pharaoh 

F1 Exodus 5:2 NIV Pharaoh said, "Who is the LORD, that I should obey him and let Israel go? I do not know the LORD and I will not let Israel go. 

F2 Exodus 14:27-28 NLT So as the sun began to rise, Moses raised his hand over the sea, and the water rushed back into its usual place. The Egyptians tried to escape, but the LORD swept them into the sea. 28 Then the waters returned and covered all the chariots and charioteers--the entire army of Pharaoh. Of all the Egyptians who had chased the Israelites into the sea, not a single one survived. 

E3 King David: Acts 13:22 NLT But God removed Saul and replaced him with David, a man about whom God said, 'I have found David son of Jesse, a man after my own heart. He will do everything I want him to do.' 

E4 King Josiah: 2 Kings 23:25 NLT Never before had there been a king like Josiah, who turned to the LORD with all his heart and soul and strength, obeying all the laws of Moses. And there has never been a king like him since. 

E5 Each one died, but there was a difference. 

D2 Verse 2, we obey their rules unless it contradicts God’s rules. Then we obey God’s rules regardless. Acts 5:27-29 NLT Then they brought the apostles before the high council, where the high priest confronted them. 28 "Didn't we tell you never again to teach in this man's name?" he demanded. "Instead, you have filled all Jerusalem with your teaching about him, and you want to make us responsible for his death!" 29 But Peter and the apostles replied, "We must obey God rather than any human authority. 

D3 Our attitude towards government is found in Hebrews 13:14 NLT for this world is not our permanent home; we are looking forward to a home yet to come. 

D4 Verse 6, we are to pay taxes. Matthew 22:21 LEB They said to him, "Caesar's." Then he said to them, "Therefore give to Caesar the things of Caesar, and to God the things of God!" 

D5 We are not to be revolutionaries to overthrow the government. We are to preach Christ and His gospel. If they believe, society will be changed and peaceful. 

D6 Some comments from church fathers: Justin Martyr (Apology 1: 17) writes, "Everywhere, we, more readily than all men, endeavour to pay to those appointed by you the taxes, both ordinary and extraordinary, as we have been taught by Jesus. We worship only God, but in other things we will gladly serve you, acknowledging you as kings and rulers of men, and praying that, with your kingly power, you may be found to possess also sound judgment." Athenagoras, pleading for peace for the Christians, writes (chapter 37): "We deserve favour because we pray for your government, that you may, as is most equitable, receive the kingdom, son from father, and that your empire may receive increase and addition, until all men become subject to your sway." (Source). 

C2 God’s Rules How to Love Our Neighbor 

D1 Imagine how society and its evils would be changed if we would live by God’s rules. We must even if no other does. Imagine is all these laws were lived consistently? There would be no theft, no rape, no murder, no lying, etc. Exodus 20, the Ten Commandments. 

D2 Verse 8,  

E1 Whatever we owe others, pay them back as soon as possible. 

E2 We must love our neighbor. This is the definition of the love spoken of here: ...for he who loves another has fulfilled the law. 

D3 Verse 9, society would improve for all if all followed these rules. Romans 13:9 WEL Because: you must not commit adultery, you must not kill, you must not steal, you must not bear false witness, you must not covet, and whatever other commandment, it is briefly summarized in this saying, “You must love your neighbor as you do yourself.” 

D4 Verse 10 is God’s standard. If I love my neighbor (anyone I meet), I will not lie, steal, hate, murder, covet, sexually sin, etc. This standard will not be followed perfectly until the New Heavens and New Earth, but it should be our attitude and goal that with God’s help, we will do it. 

C3 God’s Desire for Us to Live Ready for His Return 

D1 Verse 11: 

E1 We are not to sleep, that is, not being slothful, neglectful, making excuses, etc. to follow what Jesus wants us to do. Not doing the rules of verse 10 is a witness for God that His ways are the ways of peace and order. 

E2 Salvation (deliverance) refers to Jesus’s coming for us. 1 Thessalonians 5:23 WEL May the God of peace, himself, sanctify you completely, and may your whole spirit, soul, and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

D2 Verse 12,  

E1 Night and day refers to the Kingdom of night and the Kingdom of light (day). 

F1 Kingdom of night: The rules, worldview, and lifestyle of the arch-rebel—satan 

F2 Kingdom of day: The rules, worldview, and lifestyle of God. 

F3 John 3:19-21 NIV This is the verdict: Light has come into the world, but people loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil. 20 Everyone who does evil hates the light, and will not come into the light for fear that their deeds will be exposed. 21 But whoever lives by the truth comes into the light, so that it may be seen plainly that what they have done has been done in the sight of God. 

E2 We must be ready. Luke 12:42-48 NIV The Lord answered, "Who then is the faithful and wise manager, whom the master puts in charge of his servants to give them their food allowance at the proper time? 43 It will be good for that servant whom the master finds doing so when he returns. 44 Truly I tell you, he will put him in charge of all his possessions. 45 But suppose the servant says to himself, 'My master is taking a long time in coming,' and he then begins to beat the other servants, both men and women, and to eat and drink and get drunk. 46 The master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he is not aware of. He will cut him to pieces and assign him a place with the unbelievers. 47 "The servant who knows the master's will and does not get ready or does not do what the master wants will be beaten with many blows. 48 But the one who does not know and does things deserving punishment will be beaten with few blows. From everyone who has been given much, much will be demanded; and from the one who has been entrusted with much, much more will be asked. 

E3 Weapons of light: 

F1 The weapons (defensive and offensive) that God gives. See Ephesians 6:10-20. 

F2 2 Corinthians 6:7 NLT We faithfully preach the truth. God's power is working in us. We use the weapons of righteousness in the right hand for attack and the left hand for defense. 

F3 2 Corinthians 10:4 NLT We use God's mighty weapons, not worldly weapons, to knock down the strongholds of human reasoning and to destroy false arguments. 

D3 Things we do not do. It is not loving our neighbor if we do these things. It is a poor testimony for Jesus if we do.  

E1 Romans 13:13 WEL Let us live honorably as in the daytime, not in carousing, drunkenness, orgies, uncontrolled lust, heated arguments, or envying. 

E2 Matthew 5:16 NRSV in the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father in heaven. 

D4 We must not live our life satisfying our fleshly desires. Barclay on the 6 sins: 

 It is interesting to look at the six sins which Paul selects as being, as it were, typical of the Christless life. 


(i) There is revelry (komos, Greek #2889). This is an interesting word. Originally komos (Greek #2889) was the band of friends who accompanied a victor home from the games, singing his praises and celebrating his triumph as they went. Later it came to mean a noisy band of revellers who swept their way through the city streets at night, a band of roysterers, what, in Regency England, would have been called a rout. It describes the kind of revelry which lowers a man's self and is a nuisance to others. 


(ii) There is drunkenness (methe, Greek #3178). To the Greeks drunkenness was a particularly disgraceful thing. They were a wine-drinking people. Even children drank wine. Breakfast was called akratisma, and consisted of a slice of bread dipped in wine. For all that, drunkenness was considered specially shameful, for the wine the Greek drank was much diluted, and was drunk because the water supply was inadequate and dangerous. This was a vice which not only a Christian but any respectable heathen also would have condemned. 


(iii) There was immorality (koite, Greek #2845). Koite (Greek #2845) literally means a bed and has in it the meaning of the desire for the forbidden bed. This was the typical heathen sin. The word brings to mind the man who sets no value on fidelity and who takes his pleasure when and where he will. 


(iv) There is shamelessness (aselgeia, Greek #766). Aselgeia (Greek #766) is one of the ugliest words in the Greek language. It does not describe only immorality; it describes the man who is lost to shame. Most people seek to conceal their evil deeds, but the man in whose heart there is aselgeia (Greek #766) is long past that. He does not care who sees him; he does not care how much of a public exhibition he makes of himself; he does not care what people think of him. Aselgeia (Greek #766) is the quality of the man who dares publicly to do the things which are unbecoming for any man to do. 


(v) There is contention (eris, Greek #2054). Eris (Greek #2054) is the spirit that is born of unbridled and unholy competition. It comes from the desire for place and power and prestige and the hatred of being surpassed. It is essentially the sin which places self in the foreground and is the entire negation of Christian love. 


(vi) There is envy (zelos, Greek #2205). Zelos (Greek #2205) need not be a bad word. It can describe the noble emulation of a man who, when confronted with greatness of character, wishes to attain to it. But it can also mean that envy which grudges a man his nobility and his preeminence. It describes here the spirit which cannot be content with what it has and looks with jealous eye on every blessing given to someone else and denied to itself. (Source) 

D5 We are to put on, clothe, array ourselves with 2 things: 

E1 Weapons of light as we spoke about above. 

E2 The Lord Jesus. This means 

F1 To live and think in God’s ways 

G2 Colossians 3:12-17 BSB Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, clothe yourselves with hearts of compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness, and patience. 13 Bear with one another and forgive any complaint you may have against someone else. Forgive as the Lord forgave you. 14 And over all these virtues put on love, which is the bond of perfect unity. 15 Let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, for to this you were called as members of one body. And be thankful. 16 Let the word of Christ richly dwell within you as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God. 17 And whatever you do, in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through Him 

F2 Adam Clarke writes:  

To be clothed with a person is a Greek phrase, signifying to assume the interests of another - to enter into his views, to imitate him, and be wholly on his side. St. Chrysostom particularly mentions this as a common phrase, ὁ δεινα τον δεινα ενεδυσατο, such a one hath put on such a one; i.e. he closely follows and imitates him 

C4 Questions 

D1 What is our relationship with secular government? 

D2 How are we to pray for our leaders? 

D3 How completely do we obey their orders? 

D4 Why is it important for Christians to pay taxes. 

D5 What is a Christian life? 

D6 How is living this Christian life help society? 


How do I apply this to my life? Help me to remember and give me grace to obey.