Comparing Old and New Covenant
Was given to Israel Exodus 19:1-5
Was given to Abraham and cannot be annulled: Galatians 3:13-18
Given at Mt. Sinai Exodus 19:1-5
Given at the Last Supper as a memorial to remember the sacrificial gift of the Lord Jesus for the sins of the world
Conditional Exodus 19:5
Given to the nation of Israel
Promised to the nation of Israel: Jeremiah 31:31-34
Failed and is fading away Hebrews 8:3
Successful and everlasting
Jeremiah 32:40 with
Is everlasting and perfect: Hebrews 13:20
Promised and guaranteed by Jesus Christ: Hebrews 7:21-22
Inaugurated with blood of animals Hebrews 9:18
Inaugurated with blood of Christ 1 Corinthians 11:25
Must keep the whole law perfectly in thoughts, desires, words, and deeds Galatians 5:3
Jesus Christ kept the whole law perfectly in thoughts, desires, words, and deeds John 19:28 and
Perfect obedience is required in thoughts, desires, words, and deeds Exodus 19:5
Faith is required Romans 4:5 and Romans 5:1
Was given to convict people of their sinful condition: Galatians 3:19-24
Moses was the mediator: Galatians 3:19
Jesus is the mediator: Hebrews 8:6
The covenant with Israel had problems: Hebrews 8
The Old Covenant has been replaced: Hebrews 8:13
27 November 2017
25 March 2015
Final Passover and Betrayal
B1 How the final Passover, the Lord's Supper, is a remembrance of Jesus's death.
B2 How Judas's betrayal was part of God's plan.
B1 Matthew 26:14-30 The Parable of the Talents
B2 John 18:1-11 Betrayal, arrest, and trial of Jesus
B3 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 Institution of the Lord's Supper
C1 Initiated, described, regulations thereof given by God for Israel--"This day shall be a day of remembrance for you. You shall celebrate it as a festival to the LORD; throughout your generations you shall observe it as a perpetual ordinance." (Exodus 12:14 NRSV)
C2 Named after the "passing over" of the death angel--"...you shall say, 'It is the Passover sacrifice to the LORD, for he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck down the Egyptians but spared our houses.'" And the people bowed down and worshiped." (Exodus 12:27 NRSV)
C3 The Hebrew word itself referred to a leaping over of something. Here it would the leaping over of the blood bought household.
C4 The death angel did not kill the first born, if he saw the blood of the sacrificed animal on the door posts. This indicated the death of the substitute. "Then Moses called all the elders of Israel and said to them, "Go, select lambs for your families, and slaughter the Passover lamb. Take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood in the basin. None of you shall go outside the door of your house until morning. For the LORD will pass through to strike down the Egyptians; when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over that door and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you down." (Exodus 12:21-23 NRSV)
C5 This month became the first month of the new Jewish calendar. It corresponds to March-April.
D1 On the 10th day, the special lamb was chosen by the father of the household.
D2 On the 14th day, in the late afternoon the chosen lamb was killed.
D3 When evening started, then the 15th day started.
D4 On this evening the special sacrificial meal was eaten.
E1 Lamb--was not dressed. It was roasted whole. No bones were to be broken.
E2 Bread--made without yeast and dough saved to take with them. No leavened bread was to be eaten for 7 days.
E3 Herbs--bitter herbs.
E4 What was not eaten of lamb was burned to ash the following morning.
D5 The clothes they wore that evening were to be traveling clothes, so they could make a hasty departure.
D6 The Passover was to be celebrated every year.
D7 It was to be at the place God appointed as the place of worship.
D8 All adult males were required to be there.
C7 This could be eaten with another family if the families were small.
C8 Non-Jews could participate if the males were circumcised and recognized by the nation as qualified.
C9 Lasted 1 day.
C10 The Passover of Jesus's time
D1 Had the lamb killed at the Temple.
D2 Could be eaten with friends as well as relatives.
D3 A cup of wine was blessed by the head person and passed around to each person before and after eating the unleavened bread.
D4 Singing of Psalms.
D5 Lasted 7 days.
C11 See here: www
C1 Animal VS Christ
B1 For the law, having a shadow of the good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with these same sacrifices, which they offer continually year by year, make those who approach perfect. For then would they not have ceased to be offered? For the worshipers, once purified, would have had no more consciousness of sins. But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins every year. For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and goats could take away sins. (Hebrews 10:1-4, NKJV)
B2 The Jewish Law is not a full and faithful model of the real things; it is only a faint outline of the good things to come. The same sacrifices are offered forever, year after year. How can the Law, then, by means of these sacrifices make perfect the people who come to God? If the people worshiping God had really been purified from their sins, they would not feel guilty of sin any more, and all sacrifices would stop. As it is, however, the sacrifices serve year after year to remind people of their sins. For the blood of bulls and goats can never take away sins. (Hebrews 10:1-4, GNB92)
Bulls and goats
Image and shadow
The real thing
One time only
Still feel guilty of sin
Cannot take away sin
Takes away sin
B3 Last Supper
C1 Views (main source here
D1 Roman Catholic
E1 Eucharist is sacrament
F1 Word means thanksgiving
F2 Sacrament is
G1 "conveys grace to all who receive it worthily."
G2 Forgiveness of sin may be given and obtained.
G3 It is the bloodless sacrifice of the Savior, a real sacrifice.
E2 Consecration (when the priest does the mass)
F1 the bread and the wine become the actual body and blood of Christ.
F2 Transubstantiation is the term used for this.
F3 Christ's presence is in the elements (bread and wine) and is called the Real Presence.
E3 From the Council of Trent (1545-1563):
"...By the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called transubstantiation."
E1 Similar to Roman Catholic
E2 Called mystery rather than sacrament
E3 Does not define how the elements become the actual body and blood of the Savior
E1 Named Consubstantiation
E2 The body and blood of the Savior are present around, in, under, with the bread and wine.
E3 The bread and wine stay bread and wind.
E4 Luther illustrated by an iron rod placed into the fire. Both are united in the red hot iron, yet both are still distinct.
E5 Eucharist does not make present the sacrifice on the Cross.
D4 Reformed and Presbyterian
E1 Christ is not present literally in the elements but is present spiritually.
E2 People receiving the elements receive the actual body and blood of the Savior through the Holy Spirit's power. This works through the sacrament.
E3 This view is called Receptionism.
E4 "The rule which the pious ought always to observe is, whenever they see the symbols instituted by the Lord, to think and feel surely persuaded that the truth of the thing signified is also present. For why does the Lord put the symbol of his body into your hands, but just to assure you that you truly partake of him? If this is true let us feel as much assured that the visible sign is given us in seal of an invisible gift as that his body itself is given to us."--John Calvin
E1 Called the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion.
E2 No physical or spiritual presence of Christ at all. It is just bread and wine (or grape juice).
E3 It is a remembrance and symbolic only.
E4 This view is called Memorialism.
E5 Anglican and Methodist Churches have a wide variety of views.
E1 Some like the Salvation Army do not have Eucharist at all.
E2 "The Salvation Army has never said it is wrong to use sacraments, nor does it deny that other Christians receive grace from God through using them. Rather, the Army believes that it is possible to live a holy life and receive the grace of God without the use of physical sacraments and that they should not be regarded as an essential part of becoming a Christian." Source: Waterbeach SA
C2 I Corinthians 11:17-33 Instructions on the Lord's Supper
D1 Failure due to
E1 Divisions--people angry and not speaking to one another. They are not unified to serve the risen Lord.
E2 People are eating the Agape Feast and the Lord's Supper as if at a restaurant, not celebrating and remembering what the Lord Jesus has done for us.
E3 People are not eating together. Some get their food early and chow down before others get any.
E1 The Lord Jesus gave this info to Paul.
E2 Paul gave it then to the disciples.
E3 The night that the Lord Jesus was betrayed he
F1 Took bread
F2 Gave thanks
F3 Broke the bread
F4 And said, "Take, eat; this is My body which was broken for you.
G1 Thus all would know that it was bread that was a symbol
G2 All would remember what Jesus went through as our Savior.
F5 "Do this in remember of me." It was not eat me as if it was changed into His flesh.
F6 Took the cup after supper.
F7 Said, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood,
F8 "Do this as often as you remember me." Thus indicating that it is symbolic, not real flesh. It is in remembrance.
F9 It was for the purpose of the New Covenant sealed with His blood, just as the first covenant was sealed with blood (animal).
F10 We remember in this way the Lord's death until He returns.
E4 We are to
F1 Do this with reverence. That is in a serious, purposeful manner.
F2 We are to examine ourselves by the rules of the New Testament. If we see that we are not right and in accordance with those rules, then we must repent and get things right with God and man.
F3 If it is not in remember, with a serious attitude, and with a serious examination of ourselves with repentance if needed, then we are guilty of the "body of the Lord and of the blood of the Lord."
F4 We will bring God's judgment on us if we drink and eat irreverently.
G1 Might get physically sick.
G2 Might get physically weak.
G3 Are sure to be spiritually sick and weak.
G4 Some have died.
F5 The importance of judging ourselves is so that we will not be judged by God Himself later.
F6 If God does discipline us, it is so that we do not face that same judgment and fate of the world.
F7 Wait for one another when eating the Love Feast and taking Communion.
F8 If someone is hungry, eat at home.
F9 I sort out and do further instruction late, when I come to visit you.
B1 In the plain, normal reading of 1 Corinthians 11:17-23, which of the above understandings of remembering the Lord's Supper is most reasonable?
B2 What are we to do before partaking of the Lord's Supper?
B3 What are we to do during the Lord's Supper?
B4 What are we to do after partaking of the Lord's Supper?