E7 Omniscience—Knowledge (including foreknowledge and middle knowledge)
H1 The English word gives this as one definition:
1. a particular or specialized form of understanding or skill.
2. Webster’s Dictionary Unabridged 1828 has
a) A clear and certain perception of that which exists, or of truth and fact; the perception of the connection and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of our ideas.
b) We can have no knowledge of that which does not exist. God has a perfect knowledge of all his works. Human knowledge is very limited, and is mostly gained by observation and experience.
H2 An example of some Bible words
I1 One of the Hebrew words is דַּעַת daʻath. It means knowledge, perception, skill, discernment, understanding, wisdom. Referring to God, it would have the meaning of knowing everything.
1. God gives this knowledge when necessary: Exodus 31:3 NET and I have filled him with the Spirit of God in skill, in understanding, in knowledge, and in all kinds of craftsmanship.
2. The amount of God’s knowledge is impossible for us to understand: Psalm 139:6 NET Your knowledge is beyond my comprehension; it is so far beyond me, I am unable to fathom it.
3. Whatever knowledge and skill is needed for creation, God has: Proverbs 3:20 NLT By his knowledge the deep fountains of the earth burst forth, and the dew settles beneath the night sky.
4. He knows everything about us: 1 Samuel 2:3 NRSV Boast no more so very proudly, Do not let arrogance come out of your mouth; For the LORD is a God of knowledge, And with Him actions are weighed.
I2 One of the Greek words is γνῶσις gnōsis. It means general intelligence and understanding.
1. God’s knowledge is so vast that we cannot examine it or understand it: Romans 11:33 NET Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how fathomless his ways!
2. Note “all:” Colossians 2:2-3 PickNT That their hearts may be encouraged, being united in love and into a great wealth of confident understanding, into a real knowledge of the mystery of the God and Father and of the Christ, 3 in whom all the treasures of the wisdom and the knowledge are hidden.
G2 Foreknowledge= knowledge of the future. The English definition: knowledge or awareness of something before it occurs or exists. This is not a decreed action that is rendered certain. It is truly knowledge of the future. It seems to me that the Calvinist doesn’t believe that God truly knows the future. They believe that God exhaustively decrees the future and renders it certain. They believe the only way God knows the future is to decide what it will be, have a perfect memory, and ensure that it takes place. To me that makes God a superman but not one who truly knows the future without decreeing it. The following article might help to understand the Arminian view: Ed Jarrett, “Arminianism: Foreknowledge, Predestination and Election”
H1 Acts 2:23 NRSV This man, handed over to you according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of those outside the law.
H2 1 Peter 1:2 ISV The people chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father through the sanctifying action of the Spirit to be obedient to Jesus, the Messiah, and to be sprinkled with his blood. May grace and peace be yours in abundance!
G3 Natural knowledge= All that can happen. God knows all that can be known whether it will exist or not. The usual example given if God was going to make a universe, He would have to know everything, how they would interact, how they would respond to stimuli (both pleasurable and noxious), and if rebellion occurred, how it would occur and its results. Perfectly and exhaustively know math, chemistry, physics, decisions, etc.
G4 Middle knowledge= All that would happen. God knows exactly how a person will choose or respond in any given circumstances. The usual example is Peter choosing to deny that he knows Jesus. It is the middle between a person’s free will and God’s sovereignty.
G5 Free knowledge= All that will happen. This is not just what science and math know and predict. It is what is the unknown as well. God knows the future perfectly. He knows every response, every decision, every action, every word, and every thought.
F2 Bible verse
G1 Luke 10:13 CSB Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles that were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.
G2 Matthew 26:24 CSB The Son of Man will go just as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been better for him if he had not been born.
G3 Exodus 9:14-15 NLT If you don't, I will send more plagues on you and your officials and your people. Then you will know that there is no one like me in all the earth. By now I could have lifted my hand and struck you and your people with a plague to wipe you off the face of the earth.
G4 People making choices different from God’s choice.
H1 Matthew 23:37 CSB Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her. How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing!
H2 2 Peter 3:9 CSB The Lord does not delay his promise, as some understand delay, but is patient with you, not wanting any to perish but all to come to repentance.
H3 Isaiah 30:1 CSB Woe to the rebellious children! This is the LORD's declaration. They carry out a plan, but not mine; they make an alliance, but against my will, piling sin on top of sin.
F1 Definition: without any flaw.
G1 The Hebrew word is תָּמִים tâmîym. It means complete is various applications such as completely well, time as complete, morally complete (sinless), completely meeting the standard of truth and justice.
H1 God’s law is perfect: Psalm 19:7 NIV The law of the LORD is perfect, refreshing the soul. The statutes of the LORD are trustworthy, making wise the simple.
H2 His lifestyle: Psalm 18:30 NIV As for God, his way is perfect: The LORD's word is flawless; he shields all who take refuge in him.
H3 All that He does: Psalm 111:7 NIV The works of his hands are faithful and just; all his precepts are trustworthy.
H Note the contrast with the devil: Ezekiel 28:15 NKJV You were perfect in your ways from the day you were created, Till iniquity was found in you.
G2 The Greek word is τέλειος téleios. It means much the same as the Hebrew word. It is complete, finished, not lacking anything, so morally, intellectually, spiritually, etc. perfect.
H1 God’s standard of life is perfect. It lacks nothing and meets the standard of perfection is every possible way: Matthew 5:48 NIV Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.
H2 God’s will is perfect: Romans 12:2 NIV Do not conform to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God's will is—his good, pleasing and perfect will.
H3 The Law of Jesus is perfect (in contrast with Mosaic law. If one tried as hard as possible to obey the Mosaic law, it would not save from God’s wrath, but if one follows Messiah’s law, it does): James 1:25 CSB But the one who looks intently into the perfect law of freedom and perseveres in it, and is not a forgetful hearer but a doer who works—this person will be blessed in what he does.
H4 God’s love is perfect, and we should have this same type of love: 1 John 4:18 ESV There is no fear in love, but perfect love casts out fear. For fear has to do with punishment, and whoever fears has not been perfected in love.
H5 God’s words are perfect, ours are not, but that is God’s standard: James 3:2 NIV We all stumble in many ways. Anyone who is never at fault in what they say is perfect, able to keep their whole body in check.